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History: Sierra Club Bulletin

Fifty-Seven Year Index, 1893-1949

Index by Author | Index of Names | Subject Index

The italicized number is the volume number, following number(s) are the page number(s).

Subject Index

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q |R | S | T | U | V | W | X |Y | Z

A

Abbot, Mt., first ascent, 1908, 7, 8-14; 11, 249, 382; ascents, 13, 81; 15, 110; 6, 103; origin of name, 2, 252; 11, 249, 381; ill., 4, 200; 7, 7, 14; 10, 105; 12, 181; 15, 15, 18

Abbot Pass (Canadian Rockies), 2, 8; ill., 2, 152

Abbott, Mt. (Canada), 23, 104

Abbott, Mt., see also Abbot, Mt.

Abert, Mt., see Black Kaweah

Abies, see Fir

Abieteneae, 2, 63

Absaroka Range (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 276

Acadia Mountain (Acadia Nat'l Park), ill., 11, 12

Acadia National Park, 11, 6; ill., 11, 12, 13; see also Lafayette N.P.

Accidents and fatalities, 18, 112; 26, 129; 33, 127-130; Black Kaweah, 1927, 13, 93-94; Mt. Brewer, 1902, 4, 278-279; Bugaboo Spire, 1948, 34, 29, 70-73; Cathedral Spire, 1947, 33, 127-130; Devils Slide, 1947, 33, 130; El Capitan, 1905; 25, 49; Mt. Lefroy, 1896, 2, 8; Longs Peak, 3, 196; 13, 64; Mt. McKinley, 1932, 18, 86-87; Minarets, 1933, 19, 81; Frederick Morley, 1921, 11, 307, 310; Rae Lakes, 1908, 8, 49-50; Mt. Rainier, 1897, 2, 193, 234; 3, 282; Redoubt Peak, 1927, 13, 6

Acker Peak, 11, 382

Actitis, see Sandpiper

Adam's Peak (India), 19, 91

Adams, Mt. (Washington), 19, 58; 29, 36; ill., 7, 170

Admiralty Island (Alaska), ill., 17, 66

Adolphus, Lake (Canada), ill., 14, 94

Aesculus, see Buckeye

Africa, 6, 207; 12, 403-404; see also Ruwenzori ; South Africa

Agassiz, Mt., 13, 34, 87; 16, 105-107; 19, 95; 24, 49-50; origin of name, 5, 3; 11, 382; 24, 42; 26, 39; ill., 9, 308; 21, 30-31

Agassiz Col, 24, 46

Agassiz Needle, see Agassiz, Mt.

Agnes, Mt. (Washington), 22, 77-78

Agnew Lake, 11, 382

Agnew Meadow, 11, 17, 383; 24, 2

Agnew Pass, 11, 382

Agriculture, see National forests

Aguereberry Point, 24, 91

Ahwabnee, 10, 205; 11, 382

Ahwiyab Point, 23, 117; 25, 50

Ajo Mountains (Arizona), 34, 146-147

Alabama Hills, 10, 342; ill., 22, 15; 33, 30-31

Alaska, 28, 56-58; bear, 17, 59-66; ill., 10, 32; 11, 156; see also Glenora Mountain; McKinley, Mt.; Muir, John; St. Elias, Mt.; Stikine Glaciers

Alger Lake, 11, 382; 25, 122

Alice, Mt., see Temple Crag

Alkaline lakes, 3, 71-74

Alpina Americana, 6, 280; 8, 296; 10, 129

Alpinae (Alpine pines), 2, 65, 66

Alpine Club of Canada, 8, 52; membership, 8, 187, 188; Sherbrooke Lake outing, 1911, 8, 185-192

Alpine Congress, 10, 438-440

Alps, 18, 97-99, 111-113; 20, 24-25; 21, 60-63; compared with Sierra Nevada, 6, 168-169; 14, 85; 22, 1; travel in the 16th century, 17, 33-42; U.S. Mountain troops in, 30, 79-85; 31, 32-45; ill., 6, 75, 78, 82; 12, 289; 17, 34, 35, 42; 31, 14-15; see also Blanc, Mt.; Dolomites; Matterhorn; Tyrol; Wetterstein

Alta Meadows, ill., 5, 280

Alta Pass, 11, 424; ill., 11, 423

Alta Peak, 4, 306; ill., 6, 162; 13, 17

Altitude, see Elevation

Amazon River, canoe trip, 18, 88-96; ill., 18, 94-95

American Alpine Club, 13, 91-92; 14, 88

American Forestry Congress, 1905, 5, 269-270

American River, ill., 11, 294

Amethyst Lake (Canada), ill., 14, 31, 70, 78

Amphitheater Lake, 5, 8; 11, 382

Andes Mountains, 12, 404-405; 22, 85-91; 29, 77-81; ill., 29, 46-47

Andreas Canyon, 11, 351-352; ill., 10, 332

Angel Terrace (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 437

Angeles National Forest, 10, 374; 12, 196

Animals, see Mount Rainier National Park-Animal life; Sierra Nevada-Animal life; Yellowstone National Park-Animal life; Yosemite National Park-Animal life; see also Badger; Bat; Bear; Beaver; Beaver, Mountain; Bighorn sheep; Bison; Caribou; Chipmunk; Cony; Cougar; Coyote; Deer; Donkey; Elk; Fawn; Flying squirrel; Fox; Goat; Gopher; Ground-squirrel; Jackrabbit; Marmot; Marten; Mice; Moose; Mountain lion; Muskrat; Otter; Porcupine; Predatory animals; Rabbit; Ringtail; Sea lion; Shrew; Squirrel; Weasel; Wolf; Wolverine; Woodchuck

Animals, Packing, see Pack animals

Annual outings, see Sierra Club annual outings

Ansel Adams, Mt., 11, 316; 20, 36, 104-105; 11, 258; 20, 30-31

Antarctic expedition, 26, 95-101

Antivenin, 18, 45

Anza expedition, 13, 55-56

Aplodontia major, see Beaver, Mountain

Appalachian Mountain Club, 1, 338-339; 3, 314; 6, 133-134; 12, 311, 377-381, 424; 13, 88-89; 14, 87-88; 16, 100-101; 17, 107; 18, 122-123

Appalachian National Forest, 7, 125-126, 201-203; 8, 241

Appalachian National Park, proposed, 3, 264; 4, 174-175

Appelaminy River, 28, 41, 43

Aquilegia, see Columbine

Arachova, see Parnassus, Mt.

Arangua (Caucasus), ill., 2, 295, 297

Arbor-vitae, Giant (Thuya plicata), 4, 104-106

Arc Pass, 26, 106

Arch Rock entrance (Yosemite N.P.), 34, 37-38; ill., 34, 34-35

Arctic expeditions, 10, 324

Arctostaphylos, see Manzanita

Arenaria Rossii, 32, 18

Argiewicz, Mt. (Canada), 33, 126; ill., 33, 6

Argyroxiphium, see Silversword

Armstrong Redwoods, 3, 266

Army Pass, 9, 23; 26, 105; ill., 9, 23, 24

Arndt Lake, 11, 382

Arrastre Spring, 24, 85, 103, 104

Arrow Creek Falls, ill., 6, 118

Arrow Peak, 4, 179-183; first ascent, 1895, 1, 305-309; 11, 382, 423; 26, 40; ill., 1, 306; 4, 177, 182, 261; 8, 17; 12, 317; 25, 14-15; 34, 14-15

Arrowhead, 24, 129; 25, 55, 119; 26, 140;

Arrowhead Chimney ascents, 27, 134-136; 33, 122-123

Arrowhead Lake, 19, 45

Arrowheads, see Indian arrowheads

Asama-Yama { Japan), 6, 186-195; ill., 6, 153, 192

Ash, Flowering (Fraxinus dipetala), 3, 307

Aspen, Quaking (Populus tremuloides), ill., 25, 102-103; 27, 78-79

Asperity, Mt. (Canada), ill., 33, 6

Associated Mountaineering Clubs of North America, 10, 234-235, 351-352, 440-441; 11, 99

Astegg (Austria), ill., 12, 289

Athabaska Pass (Canada), 14, 28-33

Aurelia Harwood Memorial Lodge, 15, 102; 16, 95; 17, 98; 19, 43; ill., 19, 47

Automobiles and hiking, 17, 110

Avalanche, 10, 415-417; 16, 53; 17, 38-40; 18, 118-120; ill., 17, 35; Echo Lake, 34, 74-81; ill., 34, 94; Shadow Creek, 24, 6, 29-30; ill., 24, 30-31

Avalanche Lake (Glacier National Park), ill., 7, 226; 12, 114

Avalanche Pass (Kings River Canyon), ill., 26, 94

Avalanche Peak, 1, 242

Avenue of Giants, see Redwood Highway

B

Bacon Meadow, 11, 382

Badger, California, 15, 58-63

Badger Pass, ill., 33, 102-103

Bago, Mt., 26, 129

Baker, Mt. (Washington), 22, 72

Baldy, Old, see San Antonio, Mt.

Balfour, Mt. (Canada), 2, 263-269; ill., 2, 266

Balkan War, 14, 34-36

Ballons d'AIsace, 11, 179

Balloon Dome, 1, 83, 225

Baltoro Glacier (Himalayas), ill., 31, 14-15

Banner Peak, 23, 24; first ascent and naming, 1883, S, 193; 11, 248, 382; ascents, 17, 114-115; 23, 24; 32, 130; Winter ascent, 25, 126-127; ill., 1, 70; 6, 290, 304; 7, 6; 9, 253; 10, 447; 11, 16, 231; 15, 1, 31, 39, 46, 58, 75; 23, 25, 31; 24, 30-31; see also Ritter Range

Barbara Brook, 3, 110

Barbican (Canada), ill., 14, 6

Barbour Bill, see Sequoia National Park

Bark Beetle, 9, 206

Barnard, Mt., 1, 85-89; 11, 383; 26, 110; ill., 10, 214; 22, 14-15

Barney Lake, 12, 126; ill., 11, 451; 12, 93

Barton Flats, 11, 52; ill., 11, 52

Base Camp Trip, see Sierra Club-Base camp trips

Basin Mountain, 16, 108

Basket Dome, 25, 47

Bastion Peak (Canada), 13, 7; ill., 13, 5; 14, 6, 30

Bat, 17, 20

Battle Creek, 11, 383

Baxter, Mt., 11, 383

Bear, 6, 34; 8, 217; 9, 208; 12, 240, 336-338, 345; 17, 14-15; Alaska (Grizzly), 17, 5-6; ill., 17, 58, 59; California grizzly, 23, 70-81; Kodiak, see Bear, Alaska Bear Creek, 1, 229; 11, 383; ill., 10, 104; 27, 30-31

Bear Creek Spire, 16, 103; i9, 97; ill., 12, 181; 15, 19; 16, 6; 27, 30-31; 32, 30-31

Bear Lake (Rocky Mountain N. P.), ill., 7, 234-235

Bear Valley Meadow, 21, 15

Bear-clover; Bear-mat; Bear-weed; see Mountain misery

Bearpaw Meadow, 10, 226

Bearskin Meadow, 11, 383

Bearup Lake, 11, 383

Beaver, 6, 35-36; 12, 340; 27, 116-118; dam (ill. ), 12, 345

Beaver, Mountain (Aplodontia major), 1, 20; 6, 37-38; 17, 19

Beck Lakes Pass, 23, 24

Bebr's Alpine Sulphur, see Colias behrii

Belaying, 16, 67-88; 27, 69-72; 33, 129-130; belaying the leader, 31, 68-100; Mt. Williamson, 1903, 5, 47; ill., 16, 86; 31, 93; see also Climbing and mountaineering; Rope technique

Bell, Mt. (Canada), 22, 33-35; ill., 22, 30-31

Belly River (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 166

Bench Lake, 11, 383, 422; 25, 122; ill., 8, 17, 70; 25, 14-15; 34, 14-15

Bench marks on mountain peaks, 16, 99-100

Bennett Creek, 11, 383

Bennett's Well, 24, 82, 102

Bennington Glacier (Canada), ill., 14, 7, 34

Bennington Peak (Canada), ill., 13, 9

Benson Lake, 11, 383; 17, 5; ill., 8, 154, 209; 12, 65; 17, 11; 27, 1

Benson Pass, 11, 383

Berg Lake (Canada), ill., 10, 281; 14, 15, 87

Bergschrund, 5, 276-277; ill., 5, 276; 6, 296; 7, 188, 189; 10, 292; see also Glaciers and glaciation

Bicycle camping trips, 2, 99-104

Big Arroyo, 11, 383; 13, 17-19; ill., 9, 2, 18-19; 10, 182, 198; 11, 172; 18, 46; 22, 62-63

Big Basin, 3, 187, 218-223; map, 3, 218

Big Basin Redwoods State Park, 3, 266, 337-339; 4, 74, 251, 274; ill., 3, 220; see also California Redwoods State Park

Big Bear Lake, 19, 45

Big Bird Lake, 11, 392

Big Bird Rock, 22, 106; ill., 13, 36; 18, 7

Big Game Ridge (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 344

Big Horn Lake, 4, 203

Big Kaweah, see Kaweah, Mt.

Big Oak Flat Road, 10, 97; 34, 37; realignment, standards, 34, 45-50; ill., 34, 34-35

Big Pine Creek, 9, 261-263; ill., 9, 1

Big Pines, 19, 44-45

Big Thompson River (Rocky Mountain N.P.), ill., 7, 234

Big Tree, see Sequoia gigantea

Bigelovia, see Chemisal

Bigelow Peak, 11, 384

Bighorn Plateau, ill., 32, 30-31

Bighorn Sheep: Glacier N. P., 7, 226; ill., 12, 187, 190; Grand Canyon, 30, 65; San Gabriel Mountains, 22, 111; 23, 98; 27, 121; Sierra Nevada, 4, 202-203; 21, 86, 87-88; 26, 125-126; 27, 120-121; 33, 12-13; numbers and future survival, 34, 119-122; restoration to Yosemite, 20, 28-31; Yellowstone N.P., 8, 217; 12, 334; ill., 12, 187, 190, 268

Bigler, Lake, see Tahoe, Lake

Birch Mountain, ill., 11, 422

Bird photography, 5, 103; 8, 158

Bird sanctuaries, 11, 95-97

Birds, see Sierra Nevada-Birds; Yosemite National Park-Birds; Yosemite Valley-Birds; see also Bird photography; Bird sanctuaries; Bluebird; Bunting; Chickadee; Clark Crow; Creeper; Eagle; Finch; Flicker; Grosbeak; Grouse; Gull; Hummingbird; Jay; Junco; Kinglet; Magpie; Osprey; Partridge; Ptarmigan; Quail; Robin; Sandpiper; Solitiare, Townsend; Sparrow; Swallow; Swift; Tanager; Thrush; Towhee, Vireo; Warbier; Water Ouzel; Woodpecker; Wren

Bishop Creek, 11, 384; 20, 78-80; Halliday's Corral ill., 25, 102; headwaters, skiing and climbing, 23, 36-39; ill., 23, 14-15

Bishop Pass, 9, 307-308; 11, 384; 27, 89; ill., 9, 306, 308

Bison, 12, 334; ill., 12, 268

Bitterroot (Lewisia), 11, 149; 26, 68-69

Bivouacking, 31, 24-31

Black Buttes (Mt. Shasta), ill., 5, 86

Black Divide, 11, 384; 27, 88, 103, 104

Black Giant, 5, 236; 11, 399; 27, 88, 105; ill., 16, 11; see also Goode, Mt.

Black Giant Pass, 27, 92, 104

Black Kaweah, 11, 130-134, 254, 311-312, 384, 440; 12, 49; 13, 86-87; 18, 128; 21, 99; first ascent, 1920, 11, 130-134, 254, 384; 12, 49; ill., 4, 304, 306; 7, 38; 11, 132, 133; 13, 1, 24, 92; see also Kaweah peaks

Black Mountain, ill., 6, 106

Black Rock Pass, 7, 101; 11, 135; ill., 7, l00; 11, 132, 410-411

Blackfoot Glacier (Glacier N.P.), 23, 102; ill., 7, 228

Blacksmith Peak (Yosemite N.P.), 19, 31, 98; 20, 106; 22, 56; ill., 20, 110-111

Blanc, Mont (Alps), 30, 79-80, 82-85; ill., 31, 14-15

Blaney Meadow, 3, 254; 5, 154-155; 11, 384

Blazing-star (Mentzelia laevicaulis), 11, 150; ill., 11, 148

Bloody Canyon, 3, 76; 11, 384

Blue Flower Pass, 3, 144; ill., 3, 137, 147

Blue Lakes, 1, 322

Blue Mountain (Washington), 22, 78

Bluebird, Mountain (Sialia arctica), 8, 260-264; 9, 271; ill., 8, 262, 263

Bob Ingersoll Rock, see North Dome (Kings River Canyon)

Boilie, 13, 50; ill., 13, 49

Bogs, 11, 81-82

Bolivian Andean Ski Club, 29, 77-81; Cabana (ill. ), 29, 46-47

BoIling Memorial Redwood Grove, 11, 327

Bolton Basin, 3, 168; see also Sixty Lakes Basin

Bolton Brown, Mt., 11, 426; 16, 107

Bond Pass, 11, 384

Bonpland, Lake, see Tahoe, Lake

Boothe Lake Camp, 12, 40

Boots, see Camping-Boots

Borneo, see Kinabalu

Boreal Plateau, 22, 10

Boston Glacier (Washington), ill., 22, 94-95

Boulder Field Shelter Cabin (Longs Peak), 13, 63; ill., 13, 65

Boulder Peak (Glacier N. P.), 23, 103

Boundary Hill, 11, 384

Bow Lake (Canada), ill., 2, 264

Bowline knot, 16, 71, 75

Bowman Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 115; 23, 110-111

Bradley, Mt., 2, 273; 11, 385; 26, 40

Branigan Lake, 11, 385

Breeze Creek and Lake, 11, 385

Brenta Spire (Canada), 24, 62; ill., 24, 62-63

Brenthis, 9, 91

Brevifoliae (Short-leaf pines), 2, 67-70

Brewer, Mt., first ascent and naming, 1864, 2, 87-88; 11, 252, 285; 14, 39; 26, 32; record of first ascent (ill. ), 11, 251; ascents, 1, 288, 289; 2, 21; 4, 278-284; 6, 159; 11, 252; Brewer east basin map, 3, 108; fatality, 4, 278; route, 3, 156; view, 4, 284; 6, 170; ill., 1, 92, 193; 2, 17, 20, 21, 98, 249; 4, 95, 278, 281, 282; 6, 162; 7, 239; 10, 206, 407; 11, 120, 251, 410-411; 12, 237; 26, 94-95; 30, 62-63

Brewer Creek, ill., 6, 162

Bridalveil Fall (Yosemite Valley), 3, 32; 6, 307; 7, 265; 11, 385; ill., 3, 32, 45; 7, 169

Bridal Veil Falls (Cataract Canyon), ill., 4, 87

Bride Peak (Himalayas), ill., 31, 14-15

Bridger Lake (Yellowstone), ill., 12, 377

Bright Angel Trail (Grand Canyon), 4, 160-163

British Columbia, Coast mountains, 33, 1-10, 124-127; ill., 33, 6-7

Broad Peak (Himalayas), ill., 31, 14-15

Brocken, see Spectre of the Brocken

Brockway, ill., 8, 257; 9, 274, 275

Broderick, Mt., 25, 51

Broderici Canyon, 25, 48

Brothers (Yosemite N.P.), Lower Brother, 22, 107; 23, 118; 24, 129; 25, 52, 54-55, 119; 26, 139; Middle Brother, 25, 52

Brown, Mt. Bolton, see Bolton Brown, Mt.

Browne Tower (Alaska), ill., 28, 30-31

Browns Pass (Glacier N. P .), ill., 12, 115

Bruce, Mt. (Canada), 9, 243-245; ill., 9, 244

Brué map of California, 28, 41; ill., 28, 30-31

Brussels Peak (Canada), 34, 144

Bryanthus breweri, 4, 298; ill., 12, 33

Bryanthus Lake, see Bullfrog Lake

Bryce Canyon National Park (Utah), ill., 11, 318

Bubbs Creek, 1, 99, 190; 11, 385; map, 2, 271; name, 10, 340; 11, 385; ill., 1, 186, 192; 8, 274; 26, 15; see also Bubbs Creek Falls

Bubbs Creek basin, 6, 118-119; map, 2, 114, 128; ill., 18, 14

Bubbs Creek Falls, ill., 8, 13, 281; 29, 46-47

Buckeye (Aesculus californica), 3, 303

Buckner, Mt. (Washington), ill., 22, 94-95

Buckthorn, Gray (Ceanothus cuneatus), 3, 303; White (Ceanothus divaricatus), 3, 307

Budd Lake, ill., 10, 470

Buenaventura River, 15, 77-78, 85

Buffalo, see Bison

Bugaboo Glacier (Canada), ill., 24, 62-63

Bugaboo Range (Canada), 24, 59-62; 26, 59-63; 27, 122-125; 34, 68-73; see also Brenta Spire; Bugaboo Spire; Crescent Spire; Flat-top; Howser Spire; Pigeon Spire; Snowpatch Spire

Bugaboo Spire (Canada), 24, 60; 26, 60; death by lightning, 1948, 34, 29, 69-73; ill., 24, 62-63

Bullfrog Lake, 1, 100; 3, 154; 4, 95; 7, 185; ill., 2, 79, 272; 4, 282; 8, 48-49, 285; 11, 379; 15, 67

Bullfrog Lake region, ill., 4, 95; 7, 238; 11, 379

Bummer, see Ground-squirrel, Sierra golden-mantled

Bumpass Hot Springs (Bumpass' Hell), 2, 213-214

Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), ill., 12, 118

Bunting, Lazuli, 6, 252

Burney Falls, 2, 313; ill., 2, 314

Burr map of California, 28, 41; ill., 28, 30-31

Burro, 17, 89-93; ill., 22, 95

Burro trips, 24, 31-39; 25, 122; 26, 131-133; see also Sierra Club-Burro trips

Butte Valley, 24, 85, 104

Butter, 2, 113

Butterflies, 9, 85-94, 99-101; 21, 88-89; bibliography, 9, 102; collecting, 9, 269; 18, 47-55; ill., 9, 94, 99; see also Brenthis; Chionobas; Colias; Erebia; Eurymus; Grand Canyon of the Colorado-Butterflies; Oregonia; Parnassius; Sierra Nevada-Butterflies Butterfly noose, 16, 71-72; ill., 16, 72

Button bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), 3, 305

Byrd Antarctic expedition, 26, 95-101

C

Cactus, 33, 43; ill., 17, 71

Caesar, Mt. (Trinity Alps), 21, 95; ill., 21, 14-15

Calaveras Big Tree Grove (Calaveras Big Trees State Park), 1, 316, 322; 9, Ill; 12, 43, 196-197, 409-410; bills and legislation, 3, 262-263; 4, 175; 5, 85, 150; "Mother of the Forest," 33, 63-64, 68; need for preservation, 3, 182-185; 1, 2-4; ill., 9, 110-111; 12, 400, 401

Calaveras Grove Association, 12, 409-410

Calbovista subsculpta, 21, 90

California: birds, 5, 262; geology, 4, 292; lava regions of northern California, 2, 312-319; maps, 15, 90, 91; 28, 30-31; mountains of southern California, 11, 49-55; 25, 68-72; mountains over 5000 feet, 31, 115-117; national forests, 12, 96; primitive areas, see Wilderness areas; Spanish explorations, 13, 54

California Alpine Club, 12, 311-312, 425; 14, 88-89; 15, 112-113

California Associated Societies for the Conservation of Wild Life, 9, 45, 57-58, 105

California Botanical Society, 9, 110, 183, 299

California Club, 4, 250

California Falls, 1, 203; 4, 27; ill., 7, 217

California Forestry Law of 1905, 5, 303-309, 325

California Redwood Association, 10, 486

California Redwoods State Park, 4, 251; 6, 141, 283; see also Big Basin Redwoods State Park

California State Board of Forestry, 11, 219

California State Geological Survey, 10, 135-136; 11, 244-254; 14, 39-40; 26, 31-32; 32, 75-76; 33, 66; ill., members, 1863, 12, 126

California State Parks, 2, 244-245; J8, 120; 13, 75-80; State Parks Commission, 13, 66; State Parks Commission bill, 1927, 13, 75-77; see also Big Basin Redwoods State Park; California Redwoods State Park; Calaveras Big Tree Grove; Cuyamaca State Park; DelNorte Coast Redwoods State Park; Humboldt Redwoods State Park; Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park; Mill Creek Redwoods State Park; Muir Woods Nat'l Monument; Point Lobos Reserve State Park; Redwood Highway; Tamalpais State Park

California Water and Forest Society, 2, 324-325

California White and Sugar Pine Manufacturers' Association, 10, 375-376, 485

Callospermophilus, see Ground-squirrel

Calvatia Sculpta, 14, 61-63; 21, 90; ill., 14, 62, 63

Calycanthus, see Sweet-scented shrub

Caminetti Bill, 23, 13

Camp Hale (Colorado), 28, 55-56, 59-60, 68

Camp Seeley, 10, 335

Campanula, see Harebells

Camping, 2, 29-43; 7, 25S-260; 9, 264-267; 12, 381; 14, 34-38; bedding, 2, 34-35, 100-101; 5, 77-78, 319; 22, 42-44; bicycle, 2, 99-104; bivouacking, 31, 24-31; boots, 7, 267; children, 33, 34-40; 34, 87-94; ill., 30, 62-63; 34, 87; clothing, 2, 33-34; 22, 46; equipment, 1, 200-201; 2, 29-43, 99-104; 3, 181, 242; 4, 216-217; 5, 77-78, 31S-321; 11, 276, 292; 15, 30-31; 22, 3S-47; 26, 90-94; first aid, 12, 16S-174; 18, 44-46; 33, 31-33; food and commissary, 2, 29-32, 111-114; 3, 173-181; 15, 31; 18, 31-37; 21, 45-48; 22, 44-46; 23, 65-69; 24, 27; frying pan uses, 3, 181; snow, 23, 33; 26, 90-94; tent, 22, 39-42; 26, 90-94; winter, 3, 242-248; 4, 216-227; 5, 318-321; 8, 249-259; 9, 81-83; 11, 292-299; 15, 69-72; 22, 38-47; 26, 90-94; see also Packers and packing

Canada, forestry, 9, 71; mountains, 11, 20S-209; 13, 1-9; 33, 1-10, 124-127; see also Bugaboo Range ; Canadian Rockies; Selkirk Range

Canadian Alpine Club, 11, 208-209; Journal, 7, 74

Canadian Rockies, 2, 1-8; 8, 185-192; 10, 269-275; 11, 208; 13, 1-9; 14, 1-33; bibliography, 13, 9; 34, 144-145

Canoeing in the Sierra, ill., 12, 261

Canyon de Chelly National Monument (Arizona), 24, 71; ill., 30, 46-47

Canyon Creek, see Roaring River

Canyon Creek Lakes, 21, 15

Capitan, see El Capitan

Capitan type of ice sculpture, 10, 75-76

Carabiner, 19, 34; 25, 97; 31, 84-86; ill., 25, 102-103; 33, 102-103

Carbonated springs, 3, 66-67; see also Soda springs

Cardinal Lake, 11, 386

Cardinal Mountain, 11, 386, 425; 25, 121; ill., 11, 422; 25, 14-15

Caribou, 10, 274; ill., 10, 280

Caribou Lakes, 21, 15

Caribou range (Canada), ill., 10, 281

Carillon, Mt., 26, 110

Carlsbad Cavern (New Mexico), ill., 30, C 46-47

Carmel Bay, ill., 18, 67

Carpenteria californica, 11, 151-153; ill., 11, 152

Carson Pass, 15, 82; map, 15, 83; ill., 33, 102-103

Carson River, 15, 78

Cartridge Creek, 1, 299; 4, 256-261; 11, 386; ill., 1, 301; 9, 162-163

Cartridge Creek Divide, ill., 4, 253

Cartridge Pass, map, 17, 106

Casa Diablo Hot Springs " Geyser, " 23, 82-83; ill., 23, 14-15

Cascade range (Washington), 22, 69-79; 23, 46-49; ill., 22, 94-95; see also Chelan, Lake

Cascade Valley, 11, 386; ill., 15, 74; 24, I

Case Mountain, 11, 386

Cassiar Trail, 10, 347-349

Cassiope, ill., 12, 33; 24, 30-31

Castilleja Lake, 2, 21

Castle Cliffs, 26, 136

Castle Dome (Arizona), 19, 102

Castle Dome (Kings River), 26, 128

Castle Peak, ill., 27, 30-31; 33, 30-31, 102; see also Matterhorn Peak ; Tower Peak

Castle Rock Spire, 32, 132-133

Castor Peak (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 276

Cataract boats, 27, 53-54

Cataract Canyon (Arizona), 4, 77-87; ill., 4, 77, 82, 85, 87

Cataract Creek, 5, 10

Cataract Glacier (Canada), ill., 33, 6-7

Cataract Pass, 11, 425; ill., 11, 423

Cataract Peak, 11, 425

Cathedral (Canada), ill., 8, 189

Cathedral Chimney, 24, 129; 25, 58

Cathedral Creek, 4, 29-34; 20, 42-45; Falls, ill., 9, 255; 20, 62

Cathedral Peak, 3, 236-241; 11, 386; 17, 113; 20, 103; ill., 3, 236; 7, 95; 8, 152; 10, 470; 11, 24; 17, 7; 20, 110-111; summit spire (ill. ), 3, 238

Cathedral Range, 3, 55, 63-64, 68-69, 74; 8, 1-2; 11, 21-28; 17, 113; 34, 110; ill., 3, 55, 240; 7, 149; 8, 1, 225; 9, 224, 252, 292; 11, 25; 34, 35 Cathedral Rocks, 19, 100; 21, 98; 22, 107; 25, 62; 27, 136; ill., 30, 46-47

Cathedral Spires (Yosemite N. P.), Higher Spire, 19, 100; 25, 61; first ascent, 1934, 19, 34-37; 20, 107; 25, 61; ascents, 21, 98; 23, 118; 26, 138, 140; accident, 1947, 33, 127-130; south face ascent, 34, 150; ill., 19, 46-47; 25, 102-103; 34, 94-95; Lower Spire, first ascent, 1934, 20, 107-108; 25, 60; ascents, 21, 98; 22, 107; 23, 118; 24, 130; 25, 58; 26, 140; 27, 136; new route, 34, 149; ill., 20, 111; 25, 102-103

Caucasus Mountains, 2, 296; 22, 92-93; ill., 2, 295, 297; 31, 14-15; see also Arangua; Dykhtau; Elbrus, Mt.

Cavalier, Mt. (Canada), 22, 33

Cavell, Mt., see Edith Cavell, Mt.

Ceanothus cuneatus, see Buckthorn

Ceanothus integerrimus, see Snow-brush

Cedar, 2, 75-76; 4, 102-109; Incense (Libocedrus decurrens), 4, 106-109; ill., 4, 103; Pacific red (Thuya plicata), 4, 104-106; Post, see Cedar, Incense

Cedrus, see Cedar

Center Basin, 26, 21; crags, 22, 129; map, 2, 271; ill., 8, 69, 166; 18, 14

Center Peak, 2, 272; first ascent, 1896, 2, 273; 11, 386; 26, 40; ascent, 20, 69; ill., 11, 378; 18, 14; 26, 14-15

Central America, 4, 266-273

Cephalanthus occidentalis, see Button bush

Cercis occidentalis, see Redbud

Cercocarpus parvifolius, see Mahogany, Mountain

Cerro Gordo, 27, 138

Certhia familiaris, see Creeper, Brown

Cervino, see Matterhorn

Chabot, Lake, 6, 175-176; ill., 6, 175

Chagoopah Falls, 4, 304; 11, 386

Chagoopah Plateau, 10, 155-158; 11, 386; 22, 11; ill., 4, 302, 304; 11, 172

Challenger, Mt. (Washington), 22, 78

Chamaebatia foliolosa, see Mountain misery

Chamaebatiaria millefolium, see Spiraea, Desert

Chamaecyparis, see Cypress

Chamberlin, Mt., 26, 118

Chaparral, 3, 303-312; 11, 49

Charleston Peak (Nevada), 18, 130-131; 27, 83-85; ill., 27, 78, 79

Charlotte Creek, ill., 26, 94-95

Charlotte Lake, 1, 100; 3, 154; 26, 13

Charmoz (Alps), 30, 82-85

Charybdis, 11, 387; 12, 131; 27, 88, 104, 105; ill., 12, 12, 17, 20

Chelan, Lake (Washington), 8, 174; 10, 235-237; 22, 79; 23, 46; ill., 10, 234, 235; see also Cascade range

Chemisal (Bigelovia arborescens), 3, 307

Chickadee, Mountain (Penthestes gambeli), 8, 160; ill., 8, 158

China Canyon, see Matterhorn Canyon

"Chinquapin," 12, 152-154

Chionobas, 9, 89-90; ill., 9, 94

Chipmunk, 10, 401-413; Alpine (Eutamias alpinus), 10, 406-408; 17, 18-19; ill., 10, 402; Long-eared, ill., 10, 406; Mariposa (Eutamias merriami), 10, 402-404; Merriam, see Chipmunk, Mariposa; Tahoe (Eutamias speciosus), 10, 404-406; ill., 10, 403

Chiquito Creek, 11, 387

Chittenden Peak, 11, 387; 27, 126

Chiwawa Mountain (Washington), 8, 183

Chocolate Glacier (Washington), ill., 8, 180

Chocolate Peak, 25, 126

Cholla cactus, ill., 17, 71

Christmas-berry, see Toyon

Christmas trees, 9, 73

Church Tower (Yosemite Valley), 21, 98; 25, 58, 119; 26, 140; 34, 147

Cinclus mexicanus, see Water Ouzel

Cinder cones, ill., 2, 318-319; 11, 235

Circle Meadow, ill., 12, 213

Cirque: bowl and glacier, ill., 5, 271; wall, ill., 5, 273; see also Glaciers and glaciation

Cirque Lake, 5, 160

Cirque Peak, 26, 120

Citadel, 271 104

Citlaltepetl, see Pico de Orizaba

Clair Tappaan Memorial Lodge, 20, 2-3; 21, 81-83; ill., 20, 30-31; 22, 94-95; 26, 94-95; 27, 30-31; 33, 30-31

Claire Lake, see Little Claire Lake

Clarence King, Mt., 1, 241-253; 12, 51; first ascent, 1896, 2, 94-97; 12, 51; 26, 40, 128; drawings, 1, 245; 3, 138; origin of name, 12, 51; 10, 238; 26, 32; ill. 1, 241; 4, 182; 12, 245; 21, 30-31; 34, 14-15

Clark, Mt., 8, 152; 10, 227-229; 11, 210, 387; 17, 118-119; 21, 96; Winter ascent, 23, 43, 117; ill., 3, 240; 10, 230; 11, 410; 15, 59; 26, 94-95; 33, 103

Clark Crow (Nucifraga columbiana), 4, 142; 6, 250-251; ill., 4, 142

Clarke-McNary Act, 12, 317-318

Claw Peaks (Canada), 33, 124-125

Clear Lake, 6, 209

Cleayage, 9, 226-239

Cleaver Notch, 22, 53

Cleaver Peak, 19, 31, 98; 20, 47, 106; 22, 52, 56

Cleveland, Mt. (Glacier N. P .), 12, 156-157; 23, 103; ill., 12, 156, 157, 166

Cliff Creek Canyon, 7, 102; ill., 7, 102, 103; 13, 20

Cliff dwellings, Cataract Canyon, 4, 84-86; ill., 4, 85; Grand Canyon, 4, 162-163

Climate maps, 30, 90-91

Climber's Guide to the High Sierra: 1-The Sawtooth Ridge (Yosemite N. P.), 22, 48-57; 2-The Ritter Range, 23, 20-32; 3-The Palisades, 24, 40-58; 4-Yosemite Valley, 25, 41-63; 5-The Whitney Region, 26, 102-121; 6-The Evolution Region and the Black Divide, 27, 86-111

Climbing and mountaineering>, 2, 54; 6, 169; 12, 223; 16, 90; Ascents, see under name of mountain; beginner's impressian, 26, 25-27; bibliography, 31, 68-97; Caucasus, 22, 92-93; classification of difficulty, 21, 60; 22, 49; 24, 41; 26, 107; climbing-irons, ill., 17, 42; dangers in 16th century, 17, 33-42; Dolomites, 21, 60-63; early history, 17, 33-42; 19, 91; 23, 50-64; ethics, 16, 68-69; fourteen thousand-foot climbers' certificates, 18, 127; 21, 103-104; highest ascents, 5, 78, 141; 6, 137-138; 7, 194, 252; 8, 213; " Jam Crack Joe" (song), 29, 82-89; Japanese Alps, 22, 93-94; local rock-climbing, 19, 28-30; mountain troops in the Alps, 30, 79-85; 31, 32-45; national parks rules and policies, 26, 135-136; " One Hundred Peaks" goal, 31, 115-117; Owens Valley ascent routes, 13, 31-35; philasophy, 23, 50-64; post-war mountain training, 31, 46-56; precautions, see Safety in climbing; reasons for, 2, 54 12, 183, 296; 23, 50, 64; records, see Sierra Club-Registers; technique, see Belaying, Expansion bolts, Rappel, Rock climbing, Rope, Rope technique; terminology, 18, 70; values, 19, 28-30; Wales, 22, 92; Wetterstein, 21, 60-63; winter, 23, 36-39; World War I, 10, 79-80, 325; World War II, 30, 79-85; 31, 32--45; see also Accidents and fatalities, Alps, Climbing equipment, Climbing photographs, Safety in climbing, Women and mountaineering Climbing equipment, 2, 138; 18, 126; "Little Gem Co.," 26, 72-77; Lost Arrow equipment, 33, 103-106; ill., 33, 102-103; see also Carabiner; Expansion bolts; Crampons; Pitons; Rope

Climbing Photographs, Alps, 16th C., 17, 42; Higher Cathedral Spire, 34, 94-95; Lost Arrow, 26, 94-95; 32, 1, 12-13; 33, 102-103; Lower Brother, 23, 111; Lower Cathedral Spire, 25, 102-103; " Machete, " 25, 102-103; Monument Peak, 25, 102-103; Shiprock, 25, 14-15; Mt. Whitney, 23, 110-111

Clitheroe, Mt. (Canada), ill., 14, 22

Cloud Canyon, 6, 156; 7, 71-73; 11, 119-120, 388; 12, 47--48; ill., 1, 189; 8, 163; 11, 120; 13, 33; 26, 14-15

Cloudburst effects, 2, 299-300

Clouds, ill., 22, 63, 94; 26, 14-15

Clouds Rest, 7, 264; 11, 387; 26, 138

Cloudy Canyon, see Cloud Canyon

Cloudy Pass (Washington), ill., 8, 181, 184

Cloudy River, see Roaring River

Clough Cave, 11, 388

Club Alpin Français, 10, 438-440

Club Andino Boliviano, 29, 77-81; cabafia (ill. ), 29, 46-47

Club de Exploraciones de Mexico, 12, 418; 13, 92; 14, 90-91; 18, 124-125

Clyde Meadow, 17, 54

Clyde Spires, 19, 94; 27, 96

Coast Range of British Columbia, 33, 1-10, 124-127; ill., 33, 6-7

Coast Range of Mexico and Central America, 4, 264-273

Coast Redwood, see Sequoia sempervirens

Coccothraustes vespertinus, see Grosbeak

Cockscomb Crest, 11, 26-27, 388; 17, 113; 19, 99; 20, 103; 34, 110-111; ill., 11, 21, 29

Cockscomb type of ice sculpture, 11, 21-28; ill., 11, 21, 28, 29

Col de Doodad, 22, 51, 52

Colby Lake, 9, 3; 13, 85; ill., 9, 3; 11, 121

Colby Meadow, 11, 388; 27, 87; ill., 5, 232; 10, 105; 11, 140; 12, 249

Colby Mountain, 11, 388

Colby Pass, 3, 167; 9, 2, 48; 11, 119-129, 388; 22, 105; ill., 8, 167; 9, 3; 11, 120, 121; 13, 32

Colias behrii, 9, 91, 99-102; bibliography, 9, 102; ill., 9, 99

Colias lycaena, 9, 92

Colima (Mexico), 4, 264

Coliseum Peak, 3, 55; see also Tenaya Peak

Collapse of mountain summits, see Geological studies

College Fiord (Alaska), ill., 10, 394

Colony Meadow and Peak, 11, 388

Colorado, mountains and parks, 3, 189-199; 7, 234-236; 28, 55-56; see also Camp Hale; Longs Peak; Mt. Elbert; Rocky Mountain N.P.

Colorado Mountain Club, 8, 280; 12, 310, 424-425; 13, 90-91; 14, 89; 15, 111-112; 16, 101; 17, 109-110; 18. 123-124

Colorado River, boat trip, 27, 50-58; 30, 67-70; ill., 27, 78-79; 30, 62-63; see also Cataract Canyon Colorado River, Grand Canyon of the, see Grand Canyon National Park and Monument, and Grand Canyon of the Colorado

Colored Lady, ill., 6, 102; 7, 183; 8, 16-17, 65; 9, 160, 161; 10, 431; 21, 31

Colosseum Mountain, 11, 421; ill., 11. 422

Columbia 's Finger, 11, 25-26; ill., 9, 292; 11, 25, 28

Columbine (Aquilegia pubescens), 11, 149

Columbine Lake, ill., 7, 101, 103; 9, 20

Columbine Peak, 24, 58

Commissary, see Camping

Coney, see Cony

Confederation, Mt. (Canada), 26, 140; 33, 109-114

Conifers of the Pacific Slope, 2, 61-78, 156-173; 4, 100-131, 154-156; classification charts concerning, 2, 77-78, 173; 4, 131

Conness, Mt., 4, 287; 10, 393; 11, 18-19, 245-246, 388-389; 30, 94; ill., 3, 323; 5, 279; 10, 292, 345, 369; 18, 70, 71; 20, 62-63; 34, 86-87

Conness Glacier, ill., 5, 279; 10, 292

Conservation, 7, 64-69; 8, 131-132; 14, 68; 15, 58; 32, 36-42, 71-74; beaver, 27, 116-118; birds, 9, 176; 11, 95-97; California Associated Societies for the Conservation of Wild Life, 9, 57-58; conference of governors, 1908, 6, 318; elk, 9, 207-208; Europe, 8, 235; history of early governmental conservation attempts, 16, 16-26; legislation, 9, 205; 16, 16-26; mountain meadows, 8, 39-42; 27, 16; 32, 53-62; 34, 140-143; National Conservation Commission, 7, 77-79; need, 30, 51-55; predatory wild beasts, 8, 57; Sequoia, 11, 1-4, 87, 327-329; toyon, 11, 97-98; wild flower conservation, 8, 200-203; i1, 88; wild life conservation, 9, 45, 57-58, 105, 176; 33, 11-18; wilderness conservation, 27, 14-22; wilderness problems, 32, 43-52; see also Forestry; National Forests; Save-the-Redwoods League; Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation Conservation organizations, see Mountaineering and conservation organizations

Consultation Lake, 1, 291; ill., 1, 291

Contact Pass, 24, 48

Continental Divide, ill., 12, 40

Contra Costa Hills Club, 11, 319

Converse Basin, 11, 389

Convict Lake, 9, 55; 11, 389; ill., 9, 55

Conway Summit, 21, 54-59

Cony (Ochotona): Mt. Rainier N.P., 6, 36; Yellowstone N. P ., 12, 343-344; Yosemite, 10, 159-164; 17, 13-14; ill., 10, 160, 162

Copper Canyon, see Deadman Canyon

Copper Creek, 11, 389

Copper Pass, 27, 62

Copperhead, see Ground-squirrel, Sierra Golden-mantled

Corcoran, Mt., see Langley, Mt.

Cordilleras (Mexico), 4, 265

Coso Peak, 27, 138

Costa Rica, 4, 272

Cotter Peak, 21, 93; 26, 128

Cottonwood Lakes, 8, 193-199; ill., 9, 24

Cougar, 6, 35

Cowlitz Glacier (Washington), ill., 1, 115

Coyote: Mt. Rainier N.P., 6, 35; Yellowstone N. P., 12, 339; Yosemite, 17, 15-16; 33, 15-17

Coyote Creek, 11, 389

Coyote Pass, 10, 292; 11, 389

Crabtree Creek, 4, 210; see also Wbitney Creek

Crabtree Creek Canyon, see Big Arroyo Crabtree Pass, 26, 106

Crag Alexander Winchell, 7, 109; ill., 7, 110

Crag Ericsson, ill., 9, 25; see also Ericsson, Mt.

Crag Reflection, 3, 109

Craig Peak, 27, 126

Crampons, 17, 35

Crane Creek Road, 34, 45-50

Crane Flat, 11, 389

Crater Lake (Oregon), 1, 31-39; 10, 356-358; map, 1, 37; ill., 1, 36

Crater Lake National Park (Oregon), 8, 222; 9, 63, 320; 10, 100, 108, 356-358, 368

Crater Mountain, 11, 421

Creeper, Brown (Certhia familiaris), 6, 248

Crescent Meadow, ill., 12, 308

Crescent Spire (Canada), 24, 61

Crest-lines, 5, 279-286; 18, 73-75; ill., 18, 75

Crevasse, ill., 8, 176; 9, 156; 14, 39; see also Glaciers and glaciation

Crocker, Mt. (Sierra Nevada), 20, 75-76; 32, 131

Crocker, Mt. (Galapagos), 27, 79-82

Crossley Lake (Glacier N. P.), 12, 113; ill., 12, 117, 159

Crotalus, see Rattlesnake

Crow, Clark, see Clark Crow

Crown Mountain, 11, 390

Crown Point, ill., 11, 451; 12, 93

Cryptograms, see Pictographs

Cryptomeria, 2, 170

Crystal Cave, 11, 10

Cucamonga Mountains, ill., 5, 122

Cupressoides, 4, 120

Cupressus, see Cypress

Cut-throat Peak (Wash.), 23, 46-47

Cuyamaca State Park, 18, 121

Cyanocitta stelleri, see Jay, Blue-fronted

Cyclales, 4, 100-131

Cyclamen, ill., 16, 19; 26, 14-15

Cypress, 4, 100-101, 109-118, 131; Alaska (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), 4, 111; Arizona (CupressusArizonica), 4, 117; Bonito (Cupressus Arizonica bonito), 4, 118; ill., 4, 103; Gowen (Cupressus goveniana), 4, 116; 18, 66; Guadaloupe (Cupressus Guadaloupensis), 4, 117; Lawson (Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana), 4, 111-113; ill., 4, 111; MacNab's (Cupressus Macnabiana), 4, 116; Monterey (Cupressus macrocarpa), 4, 113-115; 18, 64-67; ill., 4, 111; 18, 63, 66; Pygmy (Cupressus goveniana parva), 4, 116; Swamp, 2, 169

D

Dade, Mt., 16, 103; 19, 97

Daggett, 1, 4Q-42

Dais Glacier (Canada), ill., 21, 14-15; 22, 30-31

Dakota National Forest (North Dakota), 7, 77

Daly, Mt. (Canada), 8, 187-188

Damnation Creek, ill., 16, 30

Dana, Mt., 2, 10; 3, 68-69, 319-328; 4, 21-22; 11, 246-247, 390; 17, 31-32; bibliography, 16, 108-111; early ascents, 16, 108-111; ill., 3, 323, 326; 4, 19; 9, 247; 11, 250; 13, 48; 17, 22; 18, 71

Dana Glacier, 5, 22

Da1lte's View (Death VaIley), ill., 17, 74; 24, 62-63

Darwin, Mt., 11, 390; 12, 306; 16, 104; 25, 13; 27, 87, 93-94, 98; first ascent, 1908, 11, 390; 12, 87-90; 27, 93; ascents, 11, 138, 284-289; 12, 306; 19, 93; 25, 120; summit pinnacle, 12, 306; 16, 104; 18, 88; 27, 94; ill., 5, 232; 11, 137, 278, 286, 287, 418; 12, 181; 16, 10; 19, 94

Darwin Canyon, 22, 110; ill., 11, 278

Darwin Glacier, ill., 11, 278

Davis Mountain, 11, 390; 12, 305; 23, 24

Day Needle, 11, 391; 26, 114; ill., 10, 175; 32, 30-31

De Alpibus Commentarius, 17, 33-42

Deadman Canyon, 6, 156, 158; 7, 71-72; 11, 119, 391; ill., 6, 156; 13, 36; 18, 7

Dease Lake (Alaska), ill., 10, 48

Death Valley (Death Valley Nat'l Monument), 1, 40-53; 17, 67-76; depression, 18, 110-111; maps, 24, 62-63, 78; trailing the forty-niners, 24, 74-108; ill., 17, 67, 70, 71, 74, 75; 24, 62-63; 27, 78-79; 30, 46-47; see also Panamint Range; Telescope Peak

Deer, eating habits, 5, 194-210; Mt. Rainier National Park, 6, 33-34; Yellowstone N.P., 12, 335-336; Yosemite N. P., 17, 12; ill., 11, 314, 315; 12, 236; 27, 78-79

Deer Creek, 10, 179-183; ill., 9, 2

Deer Creek Canyon, ill., 10, 135

Deerhorn Mountain, 11, 391; 13, 88; 17, 120; 18, 127; 25, 123, 124; 26, 129, 135; ill., 2, 79, 272; 9, 25; 10, 207; 15, 67

Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park: creation, 16, 29-36; Henry S. Graves Grove, 12, 198-199; ill., 16, 30, 31, 34, 35

Delaney Creek, 11, 391

Delphi (Greece), ill., 9, 278, 279

Denali Pass (Alaska), ill., 28, 30-31

Dendragapus, see Grouse

Dendroica auduboni, see Warbler, Audubon

Dendromecon rigida, see Poppy, Bush

Dentiform, Mt. (Canada), 33, 6-8, 127

Denudae, 2, 169

Denudation, 2, 295-311; 5, 33-43; ill., 2, 295, 296, 299, 301; see also Erosion

Depressions, 18, 110-111

Desert Peaks Section, 27, 137-138

Desolation Lake, 11, 391; ill., 11, 56

Deutscher und Oesterreichischer Alpenverein, 18, 111-113

Devils Bathtub, 11, 391; 25, 111

Devils Crags, 1, 296; 19, 19-23; 27, 106-110; first ascent, 1913, 9, 180, 188; 11, 391; 19, 19; 27, 106; ascents, 16, 104-105; 19, 19-23; 20, 73; 24, 128; 25, 121; 27, 106-110; ill., 1, 297; 5, 2; 9, 162-163, 188, 189; 11, 359; 16, 15; 19, 20, 46-47; 25, 14-15; routes of ascent, ill., 19, 20

Devils Postpile National Monument, 1, 74; 8, 170-173; 11, 46-47, 391; 15, 1-8; established, 1911, 8, 226; map, 8, 227; water power site, 8, 52-53; ill., 8, 170, 171, 226, 227; 11, 45; 15, 6, 7; 24, 30-31; 29, 46-47; 33, 30-31; see also Rainbow Falls

Devils Slide, 33, 130

Devils Tower (Grand Teton N. P.), 32, 128-129

Devils Woodpile, see Devils Postpile

Diablo, Mt., 16, 99

Diamond hitch, 1, 327-329; 21, 40-44; ill., 1, 328; 21, 41, 94-95

Diamond Mesa, 2, 274; 26, 129

Diaz Pass, 27, 63

Dicentra uniftora, see Steer's head flower

Dick 's Peak, 2, 121

Diet, see Camping-Food and commissary

Dinkey Creek, 11, 391

Dipper, see Water Ouzel

Dirt Glacier, see Flood Glacier

Disappearing Creek, 11, 392; 12, 7-20; 22, 106; 27, 88; ill., 12, 12, 16, 17, 20; see also Enchanted Gorge

Disappointment Peak, 16, 107; 24, 42, 56; 25, 16

Dishes, see Camping-Equipment

Diving Board, 24, 129; 25, 48, 49, 51, 53, 112

D.O.A.V., see Deutscher und Oesterreichischer Alpenverein

Dodwell Rixon Pass (Washington), ill., 9, 152

Dog Lake (Mt. San Gorgonio), ill., 11, 53

Doghead Peak, 8, 136-137

Dogwood blossoms, ill., 30, 46-47

Dollar Lake, see Big Bird Lake

Dolomites, 11, 292-296; 21, 6D-63; 30, 80-81

Dome Mountain (Washington), 22, 78

Domes and dome structure, 5, 211-220; 9, 228-229; ill., 5, 216, 218, 220; see also Geological studies

Donald, Mt. Sir, see Sir Donald, Mt.

Donkey, 17, 89-93

Donner Summit, ill., 33, 102

Donohue Pass, 11, 392; ill., 7, 95

Donohue Peak, 11, 392; 25, 122

Doodad, 20, 106; 22, 53

Doré Cliff and Pass, 11, 392

Dorothy Lake, 11, 392

Dorst Creek, 11, 392

Double Rock, 20, 105

Douglas squirrel, see Squirrel, Douglas

Downingia montana, 11, 147-148

Draba lemmonii, 11, 149

Dragon Peak, 14, 87

Dragonback (Canada), 33, 126; ill., 33, 7

Dragtooth, 22, 53

Drawbridge Gap (Canada), 13, 6; ill., 13, 5

Drawbridge Peak (Canada)>, ill., 13, 5; 14, 10

E

Eagle Peak (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 9, 95

Eagle Peak (Yosemite N. P .), 3, 50; 11, 393

Eagle Peak Falls (extinct, Yosemite Valley), 7, 222-224; map, 7, 224

Eagle Point, see Eagle Peak (Yosemite N.P.)

Eagle Scout Peak, 12, 420; ill., 13, 80; 18, 47

Eaglehead, Mt. (Canada), 33, 126

Earthquake, 10, 20-21

East Creek, ill., 7, 187; 26, 95

East Creek amphitheatre, 2, 270-277; map, 2, 271

East Lake, 3, 155, 156; 11, 393; 26, 133, 134; 30, 57; ill., 2, 20; 8, 48; 26, 95

East Temple (Zion N. P.), 23, 112-114

East Vidette, ill., 8, 13, 48-49; 10, 179; 26, 14-15; see also Videttes

Echo Lake avalanches, 34, 74-81; ill., 34, 94

Echo Peaks, 20, 104; 34, 110-111; ill., 9, 292; 11, 21, 25

Echo Ridge, 17, 113; 20, 103" -104; ill., 15, 59; 20, 110-111; see also Matthes Crest

Ecuador, 22, 85-91

Edith Cavell, Mt. (Canada), 14, 20-21; ill., 14, 22

Edith Lake, 11, 393

Ediza, Lake, ill., 33, 30-31; 34, 15

Ehrnbeck Peak, 11, 393

El Capitan type of ice sculpture, 10, 75-76

El Capitan (Yosemite Valley), 7, 264; 9, 7-15; 10, 75-76, 206; 11, 393; 23, 115-116; ill., 1, 134; 3, 32, 47; 7, 85; 11, 410; El Capitan Chimney, 25, 54;

El Capitan Gully, 25, 49

El Commandante, 2, 47; ill., 2, 47

El Nevado de Toluca, see Nevado de Toluca

El Picacho del Diablo, see Picacho del Diablo

El Portal, 11, 394

El Yunque, see Yunque de Luquillo

Elbert, Mt. (Colorado), 29, 22

Elbrus, Mt. (Caucasus), 22, 92-93

Eldorado, Mt. (Washington), 22, 72

Eleanor Creek, 11, 393

Eleanor Lake, 1, 330; 5, 142; 11, 393

Electra Peak, 20, 104; ill., 17, 27; 20, 31

Electric Peak (Yellowstone N. P.), 12, 368

Electrical storms, 5, 259; 20, 62; see also Lightning

Elevations of mountain peaks, 4, 285-291; 5, 90; 7, 249-250; Mt. Rainier, 6, 10; Mt. Shasta, 6, 11; Mt. Whitney, 5, 90-101; table of elevations, 4, 290

Eliot Glacier (Mt. Hood, Oregon), 12, 309, 423

Elizabeth Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 161

Elizabeth Pass, 11, 120, 393; 18, 8-9; ill., 6, 156; 18, 6

Elk, Mt. Rainier, 6, 32-33; Yellowstone, 8, 217; 9, 207-208; 12, 335-336

Ellery Lake, 11, 394

Ellesmere Island arctic expedition, 101 324

Ellis Meadow, 11, 394

Elongatae (Long-cone pines), 2, 65-66

Elston bill, 26, 47, 48, 49

Elwha basin (Washington), 9, 150-151; ill., 9, 150

Emerald Bay, 1, 319; 2, 56-57; ill., 8, 140

Emerald Lake (Trinity Alps), 21, 15

Emerald Peak, 11, 394; 12, 307; 27, 102

Emeric Creek and Lake, 11, 394; ill., 5, 218

Emigrant Spring (Death Valley), 24, 88

Emperor Falls (Canada), ill., 10, 272

Enchanted Gorge, 11, 394; 22, 106; 27, 88, 103; ill., 12, 12, 16, 17; see also Disappearing Creek

Eocene Peak, 22, 57

Erebia, 9, 86; ill., 9, 94

Erectes firs, 2, 162-167

Ericsson, Crag, see Ericsson, Mt.

Ericsson, Mt., first ascent, 1896, 2, 92; 11, 394; ascents, 22, 105; 25, 123, 124; 26, 135; ill., 2, 92; 9, 25

Eriodictyon glutinosum, see Verba santa Eriogonum, Alpine (Eriogonum incanum), 11, 149

Erosion, 3, 63-64, 74; 9, 136-147, 225-239; 10, 414--428; 11, 290-291; 22, 1-18; 30, 51-55; Matterhorn, 25, 78, 82; see also Geological studies

Eshom Creek and Valley, 11, 394

Estes Park (Colorado), ill., 7, 234

Estes Park, see Rocky Mountain National Park

Etching, 28, 76-78; ill., 28, 7& -79

Eucalyptus growing, 6, 282-283; 8, 76, 241-242

Eurymus, 18, 53

Eutamias, see Chipmunk

Evelyn Lake, 11, 394

Everest, Mt. (Himalayas), 11, 430, 453; 12, 78, 104, 182-'183

Evolution Basin and Evolution Region, 1, 221-237, 287-288; 2, 259-260; 3, 255; 5, 229-237; 9, 52-53; 11, 144-146, 251, 275-289, 395, 417-420; 12, 87-90, 220-222, 250-251, 306-307, 379-380; 13, 81; 16, 104; 19, 93; 21, 102; 24, 127-128; 25, 33-34; 26, 39; 27, 128; 31, 118; bibliography, 27, 111; climber's guide, 27, 86-111; map, 5, 229; 11, 387; ill., 5, 232, 234; 7, 15, 16; 10, 104, 105; 11, 36, 137, 144; 12, 180; 19, 14-15

Evolution Creek, 5, 156, 229-233; 11, 395; 25, 33; 27, 87; ill., 12, 324; 19, 14-15

Evolution Lake, 5, 233-234; 11, 395; 27, 87-90; ill., 5, 234; 10, 104; 11, 36, 144; 19, 14-15

Exhaustos, 16, 14; ill., 17, 122

Exsertae spruces, 2, 160

Expansion bolts, 34, 123-130; ill., 33, 102-103

Ex-Wallace, Mt., see Mendel, Mt.

F

Fairview Dome, 5, 219; ill., 5, 214; 7, 95, 149; 8, 151, 225; 9, 36, 252

Fales Hot Springs, 21, 54

Fall River Falls, 9, 110; ill., 9, 110

Fall River Mills, 3, 297; 2, 194-196

Fallen Leaf Lake, ill., 8, 141

Farewell Gap, 4, 302; 5, 54; ill., 4, 302; 5, 54

Fasciculariae conifers, 2, 64-78

Fatalities, see Climbing and mountaineering-Accidents and fatalities

Fauna, see Animals; Birds; Butterflies; Conservation; Insects; Rattlesnake; Trout

Fawn, ill., 12, 236; 27, 78-79

Feather River, Middle Fork, 9, 110; ill., 9, 110

Federal Water Power Act, 1920, 11, 213

Fern Lake (Rocky Mountain N. P.), ill., 7, 234-235

Femandez Pass, 11, 395

Fin Dome, 3, 136; 11, 395; 21, 93; 26, 128; ill., 3, 138, 142, 146; 6, 102; 8, 10, 49, 64, 71; 26, 14-15

Finch, Gray-crowned, see Finch, Rosy

Finch, Rosy (Leucosticte tephrocotis), 4, 144-145; 5, 157; nest and eggs, 8, 34-38; 17, 21-22; ill., 8, 34, 35

Finger Peaks, 17, 113-114; 19, 98

Finger Rock, ill., 3, 245

Fir (Abies), 2, 162-167, 173; Arizona (Abies Arizonica), 2, 167; Black, see Fir, Colorado white; Bristle-cone (Abies venusta), 2, 166; California white (Abies Lowiana), 2, 164-165; Colorado white (Abies concolor), 2, 167; Lovely red (Abies amabilis), 2, 163; ill., 2, 170; Noble (Abies nobilis), 2, 164; Oregon white (Abies grandis), 2, 164; Red (Abies magnifica), 2, 165; 4, 298; ill., 10, 24; Santa Lucia (Abies boacteata), 18, 66; Shasta (Abies magnifica shastensis), 2, 165-166; ill., 2, 156; 4, 51; Silver, see Fir, Red; Subalpine (Abies lasiocarpa), 2, 163

Fire Prevention Conference, 1924, 12, 191

"First Error" (Lost Arrow), 25, 59

First Recess, ill., 15, 11

First-aid, 12, 168-174; frostbite, 33, 31-33; rattlesnake bite, 18, 44-46

Fish, see Trout

Fish Creek, 4, 196; 11, 395; map, 4, 205; ill., 15, 30; 24, 1, 30-31

Fish planting, see Trout planting

Fish Valley, 11, 395

Fishermen's Peak, 4, 289; 14, 47; 32, 76; see also Whitney, Mt.

Fiske, Mt., 11, 200, 395, 417-420; 27, 87, 99; ill., 5, 234; 11, 418, 419; 19, 14-15

Fissures, 17, 30

Five Lakes Basin and Kaweah Peaks, ill., 11, 347; 18, 39

Flat-top (Canada), ill., 24, 62-63

Fletcher Creek and Lake, 11, 395

Flicker, Red-shafted (Colaptes cafer collaris), 4, 140; 6, 249

Flint bill, 12, 132; 26, 46

Flood Glacier (Alaska), 12, 122

Flora, see Puffball; Trees and shrubs;

Wild flowers

Florence Creek, 11, 396

Florence Lake, 11, 395; 20, 62

Florence Mountain, 10, 229-230; 11, 396; 17, 115; ill., 10, 231; 11, 410; 16, 47; 29, 46-47

Flowers, see Wild flowers

Flying Cloud Pass, 3, 143; ill., 3, 140-141

Flying squirrel, see Squirrel, Flying

Foerster Creek, 11, 396

Foerster Peak, 11, 396; 20, 105; 22, 102

Food for camping, see Camping-Food and commissary

Foothill trees and shrubs, 3, 303-312

Footwear, see Camping-boots

Foraker, Mt. (Alaska), ill., 28, 30-31

Forest conservation history, 16, 16-26

Forest denudation, see Denudation

Forest experiment station, 11, 330

Forest fires, 5, 148-149; 7, 77; 9, 70, 322-325; 10, 377-378, 484-485; 11, 330-331, 447-448; 12, 97-98, 195; airplane fire patrol, 11, 221-222, 331; control, 12, 317; Du Bois system of fire prevention, 9, 209-210; effects, 6, 22-24; 31, 18-23; hunters, 11, 447-448; " Light burning, " 5, 33-39; 8, 43-47; 11, 89, 106-107, 173; 12, 197-198; ill., 5, 35, 39; 8, 42, 43; lightning, 9, 26; 11, 447; lookout stations, 7, 207; Marin County fire, 31, 18-23; motion pictures, 9, 70; prevention, protection, 6, 208-209; 7, 207, 269; 8, 142-143; 9, 75, 185-188, 209--211; 10, 115-117; 11, 221-222, 331; 12, 168-174; 18, 44-46; Fire Prevention Conference, 12, 191; Santa Cruz Mountains, 5, 265; storms, 11, 447; suppression of, 6, 22-24; Tamalpais, Mt., 9, 185-188; 10, 115-117; ill., 9, 185; see also National Forests

Forest Industries Committee, 10, 377, 484

Forest Reservations and Forest Reserves, 1, 254-286; 2, 290, 320-324; 3, 262; 4, 173-174, 248, 320-322; 6, 70-72; 139--140; area, 5, 145; Congressional Act of 1891, 1, 259; court decision on grazing, 4, 73; grazing and pasturage, 5, 146-148; list, 1, 258; 2, 303; management, 5, 145-149; need, 1, 285-286; policy, 2, 304-311, 322; public lands, 4, 246; Sierra Forest Reservation, 1, 254-267; 6, 121-123; transfer, 5, 84, 326-327; see also Forestry; National Forests

Forest Service, see United States Forest Service

Foresters Pass, 8, 163-164; 16, 97; 17, 103; 18, 10-12; 25, 23; 26, 21; 27, 62; 30, 61; ill., 8, 69, 166; 18, 15, 22, 23; 22, 14-15

Forestry, 2, 201-204, 244-245, 290-293, 320-325; 3, 112-118, 182-188; 262-270, 336-339; 4, 71-75, 173-176, 246-252, 319--323; 5, 82-85, 145-152, 265-270, 325-328; 6, 22-24, 69-73, 139-142, 208-210, 282-283, 334-336; 7, 77-84, 135-137, 204-208, 269--271; 8, 76-80, 142-143, 240-242, 290-292; 9, 70-75, 116-117, 209-211, 322-325; 10, 115-120, 253-257, 373-378, 483-486; 11, 219--223, 327-334, 447-452; 12, 94-101, 195-199, 317-318; airplane patrol, 11, 331; American Forestry Association, 3, 115-116; American Forestry Congress, 5, 269--270; appropriations, 4, 73, 323; Boy Scout Forest Aid badges, 9, 325; California Forestry Law, 1905, 5, 303-309, 325; California Forest Policy, 7, 205; California State Forestry Board created, 1919, 11, 219; Canada, 9, 71; chaparral control, 7, 208; distillation experiments, 8, 292; Division of Forestry, 3, 200-202; eucalyptus planting, 6, 282-283; fire lookout stations, 7, 207; fire-warning publicity, 8, 290; forest ranger system, 3, 112-113; Germany, 8, 240-241; highway tree planting, 11, 449; homesteading, 8, 291; instruction, 4, 175-176; lumbering, 3, 200; memorial trees, 10, 486; municipal forests and forestry, 7, 204-205; San Diego, 8, 241-242; Europe, 9, 74; nursery, 10, 485; penal institutions and conservation, 8, 242; private forestry, 11, 171-174; ranger school, 7, 208; redwood conservation, 3, 200-202; 11, 328-329; revenues, 8, 242; President Theodore Roosevelt, 4, 71-73; schools (Cornell University, 2, 291; 5, 83-84; University of California, 9, 70, 209; 10, 376, 486; 11, 452; 12, 197; University of Southern California, 3, 116; Yale University, 3, 186-187, 270); Sequoia gigantea seedlings, 8, 291; Southern California Conservation Association, 12, 94; states rights movement, 9, 116-117; taxation, 7, 270-271; timber sales, 8, 240; 10, 483; 11, 448-449; tree census, 8, 292; turpentine experiments, 8, 290; Western Forestry Association, 8, 241; wood-using industries, 8, 79; see also Forest fires; Forest Reservations and Forest Reserves; National Forests

Formidable, Mt. (Washington), 22, 78; ill., 22, 94-95

Forsyth Pass, 25, 113

Forsyth Peak, 11, 396

Fountain-Dome Falls, 12, 10; ill., 12, 13

Fourteen-thousand-foot peaks, 18, 127; 21, 103-104

Fourth Recess, ill., 10, 293; 15, 14; 32, 30-31

Fox, 17, 16

Fox Creek (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 344

Fox Meadow, 11, 396

Fox's Bridge, 3, 152

Fracticonae pines, 2, 67, 70-72

"Frances, Lake," 5, 157-158; ill., 5, 158

Francis, Lake (Glacier N. P .), ill., 12, 158

Franklin Glacier (Canada), 21, 1

Frasera speciosa, 6, 160

Fraxinus dipetala, see Ash, Flowering

Freel Peak, ill., 33, 102-103

Fremont National Park, proposed, 8, 141

Fremontia californica, 3, 307; ill., 3, 306

French Alpine Club, 10, 43& -440

French Creek Canyon, 17, 123; ill., 10, 215; 19, 94-95

Frost, 10, 425-426

Frostbite, 7, 124; 33, 31-33

Frozen Lake Pass, 11, 425

Frying pan uses, 3, 181

Fry's Point, 11, 396

Fujiyama (Japan), 7, 229-233; 22, 94; ill., 7, 229

Funeral Range, ill., 17, 67

Fungi, see Calbovista; Calvatia; Lycope'.don

Funston Meadow, ill., 4, 304; 11, 172

Furnace Creek, 1, 51-52; ill., 17, 67

G

Gabb, Mt., 2, 252; 10, 292; 11, 396; ill., 4, 200; 12, 181

Galapagos archipelago, 27, 79-82

Gale Peak, 11, 397

Gallatin map of the West, 28, 40, 51; ill., 28, 30-31

Garda, Lake, 31, 32-45

Garden Wall (Glacier N.P.), 23, 103; ill., 12, 41, 111

Gardiner, Mt., 2, 19, 80-82; 11, 397; 26, 32, 40; ill., 1, 293; 2, 81; 4, 182; 5, 280; 29, 46-47

Gardiner Pass, 27, 63

Gardner, see Gardiner

Garnet Lake, ill., 11, 17, 231, 259; 15, 1, 39; 24, 30-31

Gasherbrum (Himalayas), ill., 31, 14-15

Gaylor Lakes, 11, 397

Geikie, Mt. (Canada)>, 13, 4, 7; 14, 22-24; ill., 13, 8; 14, 6, 23

Gem Lake, 11, 397

General Grant Big Tree Grove, 4, 90-91

General Grant National Park, 8, 225; 9, 319-320; 10, 249-250, 340; 11, 11; 26, 43; see also Sequoia National Park

Genevra, Mt., 11, 397; 12, 307

Gentian Meadow, 4, 212

Gentry's, 1, 133-134

Geological studies, cockscomb type of crest, 11, 21-28; domes and dome structure, 5, 211-220; 9, 228-229; ill., 5, 216, 218, 220; Eagle Peak Falls (extinct), 7, 222-224; map, 7, 224; glacial action, 3, 57-64, 74; glacial cirques, 5, 279-286; ill., 5, 271, 273, 280, 282, 284; glacial denudation, 10, 304-318; glacial polish, ill., 18, 127; glacier measurement and motion (Eliot Glacier, 12, 423; Mt. Hood and Mt. Rainier, 17, 108; Nisqually Glacier, 6, 10S-114; value of measuring, 20, 20-27;

Giant Forest, 3, 170; 7, 103; ill., 12, 213, 236, 308; 13, 16

Giant Sequoia, see Sequoia gigantea

Gibbs Mountain, 11, 397; ill., 4, 19

Gibraltar Rock (Mt. Rainier), 2, 230; 3, 278; ill., 1, 116; 6, 4

Gilbert Lake, ill., 7, 240

Gilbert, Mt., 11, 398; 27, 97

Gilbert, Mt. (Alaska), ill., 10, 394

Gilia, Scarlet (Cilia aggregata), 11, 148

Giraud Peak, 11, 398; 12, 307; 24, 58

Giroud, see Giraud

Glacier Col, 22, 53

Glacier Divide, 25, 120; 27, 92, 97, 98; ill., 12, 221

Glacier Gorge (Rocky Mountain N. P .), ill., 7, 234-235

Glacier Lodge, 24, 44

Glacier Notch, 24, 49

Glacier Peak (Washington), 8, 174-184; 22, 72; ill., 8, 176, 180, 181

Glacier Point, 3, 29; 7, 265; 23, 118-119; 25, 57-58, 119; " Terrace " 25, 53-54; Trail circle, 25, 112; ill., 3, 28; 7, 153

Glaciers and glaciation, 10, 66-8, 184-201; 18, 71; bergschrund, 5, 276-277; ill., 5, 276; 6, 296; 7, 188, 189; glacial action, 3, 57-64, 74; 9, 225-239; 10, 184-201, 305-308; 19, 89; 29, 92-95; glacial cirque, 5, 279-286; ill., 5, 280, 282, 284; glacial denudation, 10, 304-318; glacial epoch in California, 3, 61-64; 9, 87; 10, 184-201; 11, 21-28; glacial erosion, 3, 60, 63; 10, 66-68; 11, 184-185; glacial flow diagram, 5, 282; glacial lakes, 9, 7-15; glacial moraines, 3, 59, 61, 77, 194; 9, 7-15, 140-144; 10, 308; 11, 70-74; glacial moraines with ice cores, 33, 87-96; glacial motion, recession, and measurement, 3, 59-60; 5, 282; 6, 108-114; 12, 309, 423; 17, 108; 20, 20-27; glacial polish, 3, 53; 10, 306-307; ill., 18, 127; glacial striation, 10, 307; glacial valleys, 10, 195-197; Himalayas, 7, 250; lect!lre by Prof. Joseph LeConte, 3, 57-64; photography, 5, 23-25; vanations, 5, 20-25; Yosemite, 9, 136-147; 10, 184-201; see also names of mountains for specific glaciers; see also Crevasse; Geological studies; Serac

Glacier National Park, 7, 225-228; 8, 218-219; 9, 63-64, 321; 10, 100-101, 245, 366-367; 12, 34-36; 111-120; animal life, 7, 226; 12, 117; compared with Sierra Nevada, 12, 111-114; glacier recession, 20, 22-23; Mountaineers' outing, 1914, 9, 311; Sierra Club ascents, 1937, 23, 102-103; Sierra Club outing, 1924, 12, 115-120, 158-162; ill., 7, 225-229; 30, 46-47; see also Avalanche Lake; Belly River; Black-foot Glacier; Boulder Peak; Bowman Lake; Browns Pass; Cleveland, Mt.; Crossley Lake; Elizabeth Lake; Francis, Lake; Garden Wall; Glenns Lake; Going-to-the-Sun Chalet; Gould, Mt.; Grinnell Glacier; Grinnell Lake; GrinneIl Mountain; Gunsight Pass; Indian Pass; Janet Lake; Josephine, Lake; Kinnerly Peak; Kintla Peak; Logan, Mt.; Logan Glacier; Logan Pass; McDermott, Lake; McDonald, Lake; Merritt, Mt.; Peary Lake; St. Mary Lake; Wilbur, Mt.

Glass Mountain, 2, 316-318; ill., 2, 316, 318

Glen Alpine Gorge, ill., 8, 141

Glen Alpine Springs, 1, 319-320

Glen Aulin, 12, 41-42; ill., 17, 10

Glen Canyon (Colorado River), ill., 30, 62-63

Glen Pass, 3, 139-148; 6, 106; 7, 184; 11, 398; 26, 20; 27, 63; ill., 6, 106; 7, 186; 26, 94-95

Glenn Meadow, ill., 9, 164

Glenn Pass, see Glen Pass

Glenns Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 117

Glenora Mountain (Alaska), 11, 154-160

Glissading, 6, 172

Goat, Mountain, see Mountain goat

Goat Crest, 11, 398; ill., 5, 284

Goat Mountain, 2, 79; 3, 153, 158; 4, 190; 6, 104; 11, 398

Goat-grazing experiments, 7, 208

Goddard, Mt., 27, 100-101; first ascent, 1879, and naming, 11, 251, 398; 20, 64; 26, 39; 27, 87; ascents, 2, 259; 3, 255; 5, 237; 9, 52-53; 16, 104; 25, 11; ill., 12, 21, 181; 19, 14-15

Goddard Creek, 12, 7-20; map, 12, 8; ill., 12, 13

Goddard Divide, 27, 91; ill., 7, 16

Godwen Austen, Mt. or " K2 " (Himalayas), 7, 251; ill., 31, 14-15

Going-to-the-Sun Chalet (Glacier N.P.), ill., 12, 44

Gold Hill., 24, 84, 104

Golden Trout, see Trout, Golden

Golden Trout Creek, 4, 307; 5, 79; 11, 398; 12, 141; ill., 7, 252; see also Volcano Creek

Goodale Creek and Goodale Mountain, 11, 399; ill., 11, 422

Goodale Pass, see Silver Pass

Goode, Mt., 11, 399; 27, 97

Goode, Mt. (Washington), 22, 78; 23, 47

Gopher (Thomomys moliticola), 17, 19

Gould, Mt., 7, 186; 11, 399; 12, 140; 26, 40; ill., 10, 207; 26, 94-95

Gould, Mt. (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 111

Government control of water power, 7, 84

Grace Meadow, 11, 400

Grade profile in glacial erosion, 5, 271-278; ill., 5, 271, 273, 275, 276

Grand Canyon National Park and National Monument, and Grand Canyon of the Colorado (Arizona), 3, 333-335; 4, 160-172; 11, 6, 31& -319; 15, 107; bridge over the Colorado, 15, 107-108; boat trips, 22, 80-84; 27, 50-58; butterflies, 18, 55; cliff dwellings, 4, 162; Lake Mead, 24, 124-125; map, 4, 80; trails, 3, 333-335; 4, 160-164; ill., 11, 319; 27, 7& -79; 30, 46-47; see also Bright Angel trail; Cataract Canyon; Hance trail; Havasupai Canyon; Mystic Springs trail

Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne, see Tuolumne, Grand Canyon of the

Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, see Yellowstone, Grand Canyon of the

Grand Mountain, 12, 66

Grand Sentinel, 3, 152; ill., 26, 94-95

Grand Teton, 12, 360-362; first ascent, 12, 361; ascents, 12, 356-364; 32, 128-129; ill., 11, 164; 12, 356, 368; 16, 54

Grand Teton National Park, see Devils Tower; Grand Teton; Jackson Lake; Jenny Lake; Middle Teton; Moran, Mt.; Owen, Mt.; Symmetry Spire; Tetons Granite Basin, 1, 294; 4, 254; 11, 400; ill., 9, 162

Granite Creek, 11, 400; see also Rock Creek

Granite detail photographs, 17, 6; 28, 78-79

Granite Falls (Colorado River), ill., 27, 78-79

Granite Meadows, see Little Jackass Meadows

Granite Pass, 10, 355; 11, 37, 400

Granite Peak (Montana), 12, 368-372; ill., 12, 368-372, 369

Granite Valleys, 10, 62-77

Grant Grove (Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park), ill., 16, 35

Grasshoppers, 17, 114-115

Graves Grove, see Henry Solon Graves Grove

Graveyard Meadows, 11, 400

Graviconae pines, 2, 73-74

Gray Peak, 11, 400

Grayback, see San Gorgonio, Mt.

Grazing and pasturage, 1, 169-171, 264-265; 3, 51-52, 56-57; 5, 146-148; 10, 322-323, 336-338, 433, 441-442; 11, 37-38, 100-101; 12, 176; 32, 36-42, 53-62, 71-74; chaparral control by goat grazing, 7, 208; drought conditions, 9, 104, 114-115, 116; effect on vegetation, 2, 292; Mount Rainier N. P., 10, 358; mountain meadows, 8, 40; 27, 16; 32, 53-62; 34, 140-143; recreational areas, 27, 115-116; Yosemite, 9, 104, 114-115; see also National forests -Grazing; National parks -Grazing

Great Western Divide, 1, 254; 11, 400; ill., 11, 120; 13, 17

Greece, 14, 34; 30, 71-78; see also Olympus, Mt.; Parnassus, Mt.

Green, Mt. (Canada), 2, 2; ill., 2, 152

Gregory 's Monument, 3, 157; ill., 2, 21, 22, 26; see also Stanford, Mt.

Grepon (Alps), 30, 82-85

Grinnell Glacier (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 37, 111

Grinnell Lake (Glacier N. P .), ill., 23, 110-111

Grinnell Mountain (Glacier N. P.), 23, 103; ill., 12, 4

Grizzly Giant tree, 3, 25; ill., 10, 430; 29, 46-47

Grizzly Lake and Meadow (Trinity Alps), 21, 15

Grizzly Peak (Yosemite N. P.), 2, 217; 9, 133, 311; 11, 400; 21, 96; 25, 43, 49, 51, 57, 119

Grizzly Point, see Grizzly Peak

Grosbeak: Black-headed (Zamelodia melanocephala), 6, 246-247; 8, 119; California pine (Pinicola californica), 4, 141-142; 9, 33-35; ill., 9, 34, 35; Western evening (Coccothraustes vespertinus montanus), 4, 141-142; ill., 4, 141

Ground-squirrel, Sierra golden-mantled, 10, 408-409; ill., 10, 403

Grouse, Sierra blue (Dendragapus obscurus sierrae), 4, 136-137; 17, 21

Grouse Meadow, 7, 18; 11, 400; map, 11, 359; trail, 9, 191, 306, 307; ill., 7, 1, 17; 9, 133, 159, 303; 11, 153; 19, 14-15; 29, 46-47

Grouse Valley, see Grouse Meadow

Grunigen Creek, 11, 400

Guardian of the Grove tree, ill., 3, 222

Guatemala, 4, 266-269

Guitar Lake, 11, 400

Gul1, Ca1ifomia, 17, 21

Gull Lake, 11, 400

Gunsight, 25, 52, 118

Gunsight Lead, 24, 74, 93, 100

Gunsight Pa55 (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 40

Guyot, Mt., 11, 401; 26, 120; 32, 80

H

Haeckel, Mt., 11, 138, 144-146, 401; 19, 94; 20, 79; 21, 102; 27, 87, 95; ill., 11, 137, 144, 145, 279, 286, 418; 12, 181

Halberdier, Mt. (Canada), 22, 33

Hale, Mt., 26, 111

Haleakala (Hawaii), 11, 232-234; ill., 11, 234, 235

Halemaumau, see Kilauea

Half Dome, 7, 264; 11, 401-402; 25, 48, 51, 53; 31, 118; first ascent, 1875, 11, 401-402; 25, 43, 48; ascent, 1884, 31, 1-9; ascents, 9, 133-135, 311-312; 19, 100; 21, 96-97; 31, 120-121; cable stairway, 11, 92, 101-103, 201; ill., 11, 100; geology, 5, 212, 219; 10, 71-77; ill., 3, 28; 5, 212, 216; 7, 153; 8, 132; 9, 126-128; 10, 72-75; 11, 57, 101, 410; 16, 1, 38j30, 46

Hallett Glacier (Rocky Mountain N. P .), ill., 7, 235

Hal1iday's Corral (Bi." hop Creek), ill., 25, 102

Halstead Meadow, 11, 402

Hamilton, Mt., 11, 408-412; 12, 143; ill., 11, 41Q-411; 12, 181

Hamilton Lakes, lower (main) lake, ill., 10, 135; 18, 54; upper lake, ill., 18, 47

Hammond, Mt. (Canada), 8, 51

Hance Trail (Grand Canyon N. P.), 4, 163-164

Hand, The, (Pinnacles National Monument), 33, 123-124

Hanging valleys, 5, 10; 12, 231

Haplodon, see Beaver, Mountain

Happy Gap, 11, 402

Happy Isles, 11, 402; 25, 110

Hardscrabble Pass, 10, 293

Harebells (Campanula rotundifolia), ill., 12, 118, 348

Harper Glacier (Alaska), ill., 28, 30-31

Harrington, Mt., 2, 45

Harrison Pass, 1, 290; 2, 270; 3, 156-157; 5, 115-121, 297-302; 11, 402; 22, 101; 30, 58; ill., 5, 120, 297, 300; 9, 25; 30, 62; see also Madary's Pass

Hartmanweilerskopf (France), 11, 176

Harwood Lodge, see AureIia Harwood Memorial Lodge

Havasu Indians, 4, 78

Havasupai Canyon, see Cataract Canyon

Havasupai cliff dwellings (Grand Canyon National Park), ill., 4, 85

Hawaii National Park, 10, 244, 478; 11, 231-243; 12, 401; ill., 11, 239, 242, 243; see also Haleakala; Kilauea

Hawk, Cooper, 27, 15

Hawk's Head Notch, 22, 53

Hawks Rest (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 377

Hayden Peak (Alaska), ill., 32, 62-63

Hayes, Mt., see Gray Peak

Hazel Green, 11, 402

Heart Lake, 11, 402

Heart Lake (Yellowstone N. P.), 12, 272; ill., 12, 269

Heartstone, Mt. (Canada), 33, 125

Height of mountains, see Elevations

Helen Lake, 11, 402; 27, 88; ill., 11, 181; 11, 419

Helen 's Dome, 3, 110

Hell-for-Sure Pass, 11, 403; 19, 98; 27, 88, 91; map, 17, 106

Helms Meadow, 11, 403

Hemlock, Alpine ( Tsuga Pattoniana , Tsuga Hookeriana ), 2, 160; ill., 2, 160; Mountain [Western] (Tsuga mertensiana), 2, 159-160; ill., 9, 273; 10, 25; 17, 1

Hemlock spruce (Tsuga), 2, 159-161

Hemlock spruce, False (Pseudotsuga), 2, 161-162

Hennessy Lakes (Trinity Alps), ill., 11, 367, 370, 374

Henry, Mt., 11, 403; 25, 120; see also Kaweah Peaks

Henry Solon Graves grove (Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park), 12, 198-199; ill., 16, 31, 34

Hermit, 5, 232-233; 11, 403; 12, 222; 16, 104; 19, 93; 25, 120; 27, 87, 102-103; ill., 5, 232; 11, 137, 140; 12, 325; 16, 7; 19, 14-15

Hermit group (Canada), ill., 23, 110-111

Hetch-Hetchy Fall, see Wapama FaIl

Hetch-Hetchy Reservoir: controversy, 6, 211-222; 7, 200; 8, 63, 206, 271; editorial in opposition, 7, 69-71; hearings, 7, 260-263; 9, 44-45; Hechy-Hetchy bill passed, 1913, 9, 174-176; Frederic Law Olmsted's report, 9, 192-199; Secretary of Interior's decision on application for sites, 6, 321-329; Sierra Club plea, 6, 264-268

Hetch-Hetchy Valley, 1, 332; 6, 211-222; 7, 96, 129, 152; 8, 156; 9, 145; 10, 71; 11, 403; bibliography, 7, 133; waterfalls, 6, 212-214; 7, 152; ill., 6, 211, 216, 218, 242; 7, 64-69, 152, 200, 201, 260-263; 8, 151, 156; 9, 260; 29, 46-47

Hidden Lake, 11, 355

High Horse Trip, 25, 21-25

High mountain route, 1, 61-84, 221-237, 287; 2, 249-262; 4, 177-184, 253-263; 7, 1-22; 20, 54-67; 25, 129-130; map of LeConte route, 7, 22; see also John Muir Trail

High Sierra Camps, 12, 37-42; 25, 115-116; map, 12, 38

High Sierra Trail, 16, 97; 17, 104; 18, 7; ill., 16, 99; 18, 54

High Sierra trails, 25, 108-116

High Trips, see Sierra Club-Annual outings

Highest mountain ascents, see Climbing and mountaineering-Highest ascents

Hikers' Camps, see High Sierra Camps

Hiking, 1, 314-324; automobiles, 17, 110; see also Camping; Knapsack trips

Hilgard, Mt., 11, 404; ill., 4, 200; 12, 181

Himalaya, 5, 78; 7, 250-252; 12, 403; ill., 31, 14-15; see also Baltoro Glacier; Bride Peak; Broad Peak; Everest, Mt.; Gasherbrum; Godwen Austen, Mt. (K2); Kangchenjunga; Karakorum range; Mustagh Tower; Paiju Mountain; Siniolchun

Hitchcock, Mt., 11, 404; 26, 117; 32, 80; ill., 7, 148; 22, 14-15

Hitchcock Lakes, ill., 7, 148; 22, 14-15

Hockett Lakes and Meadows, 11, 404

Hockett Trail, 1, 1-8, 101; 3, 169; 4, 207-208; 11, 404

Hodaka, Mt. (Japan), .22, 93-94

Hoffman, Mt., 11, 404, 405; 17, 31; 26, 32; ill., 5, 282; 8, 151; 9, 292; 11, 386; 20, 110-111; " The Thumb, " 9, 230; 20, 105; ill., 9, 230; 11, 386; 20, 110-111

Hoffman Glacier, 10, 185

Hog Ranch, 11, 405

Hoh Glacier (Olympic National Park), ill., 9, 153, 156

Holly, Wild, see Toyon

Homers Nose, 11, 405

Homestead Laws, 5, 82-83, 150-151; 6, 70-72, 336

Hood, Mt. (Oregon), 12, 309, 423; 19, 58

Hopkins, Mt., 20, 75; 32, 131

Horn Creek Rapid, ill., 27, 78-79

Horse Corral Meadow, 11, 405

Horsethief Creek (Canada), ill., 9, 241

Horton Lake, 11, 405

Hospital Rock, 11, 405

Howser Spire (Canada), 26, 6G-63; 27, 122-125; ill., 24, 62-63; 26, 94-95; South Tower, 27, 122; ill., 26, 94-95

Huascaran, Mt. (Andes), 7, 124, 249-250

Hulsea algida, 10, 284

Humboldt Redwoods State Redwood Park, 11, 327, 449-451; 12, 100; ill., 11, 303, 311

Hummingbird, 4, 135; 11, 148; ill., 12, 119; 25, 102-103

Humphreys, Mt., 2, 253-258; 11, 249-251, 277, 405-406; 19, 15-18; first ascent, 1904, 5, 153-175; 11, 250, 405-406; 19, 116; first ascent from the east, 21, 49-53; first ascent wrongly attributed to John Muir, 11, 182, 250-251; ascents, 11, 56-59, 203-204, 313; 15, 110; 16, 104; 17, 119; 19, 16-18, 92; 24, 126-127; 26, 131-132; bibliography, 19, 18; Married Men's Point, 5, 170; 19, 16; origin of name, 11, 405; 19, 15; view, 11, 182; 24, 14; ill., 4, 200; 5, 153, 158, 168; 9, 306; 11, 56, 204; 15, 10; 19, 16, 46; 20, 62-63; 25, 102-103; routes of ascent on, ill., 19, 16

Humphreys Basin, 13, 35; ill., 19, 46

"Hundred Peaks" goal, 31, 115-117

Huntington, Mt., 20, 75

Hunt's Cove (Oregon), ill., 3, 204

Hurd Peak, 10, 440; 27, III; ill., 23, 14-15

Hutchings, Mt., II, 406

Huxley, Mt., 5, 234; 11, 406; 25, 121; 27, 87, 99; ill., 5, 234; 7, 15; 11, 36, 117; 19, 14-15

Hylochichla, see Thrush

I

Ibex Hills (Death Valley), ill., 17, 70

Ibex Meadows, 7, 110

Ice caves, 2, 318; 4, 159-160

Iceberg Lakes, ill., 23, 30-31; 24, 30-31; 33, 30-31

Icebergs, 26, 96

Iceland, 30, 30

Idaho, 26, 78-81

Idwal Slabs (Britain), 22, 92

IIlilouette Creek, 11, 406

Illilouette Fall, 3, 42-43; 6, 307; 11, 406; 25, 53

Illilouette Glacier, 10, 191-192

Illilouette Ridge Trail, 25, 112

Inimani, Mt. (Andes), 29, 80-81

Inclusae spruces, 2, 157-160

Inconsolable Range, 24, 56

Indefatigable Island (Galapagos) 27, 79-82

Indefatigable Island (Galapagos), 27, 79-82

Independence, view of Sierra Nevada, 22, 110

Indian arrowheads, 9, 325; ill., 9, 325

Indian baskets, 12, 193

Indian Canyon trail, 25, III

Indian Henry 's (Mt. Rainier N. P.), 9, 284-285; 16, 64; ill., 9, 284, 285

Indian Joe 's Spring, see Providence Spring

Indian legends, 12, 388-389

Indian names, 9, 55; 11, 382, 385, 386, 389, 393, 394, 401, 403, 406; 12, 49-52, 55, 59, 61, 63, 64, 128, 130, 132, 137-140, 145, 146, 253, 388-390

Indian Pass (Glacier N.P.), ill., 12, 116

Indian pictographs: Cataract Canyon (Arizona), 4, 82; ill., 4, 82; Pate Valley, 6, 258-259; 27, 125; ill., 6, 258-259

Indian spearhead, ill., 10, 333

Indian villages and' camp-sites in Yosemite Valley, 10, 202-209

Indian Wells (Death Valley), 24, 95

Indians: Death Valley, 24, 80, 92, 101; Havasupai, 4, 78; Kings River region, 26, 28-29; Navajo, 24, 70; Queniult, 9, 156; ill., 9, 157; Yokut, 12, 385-400; 17, 50; ill., 12, 385; Yosemite, 10, 202-209; 11, 415; 17, 27

Infant Buttes, 11, 406

Insects, 9, 268-270; see also Bark Beetle;

International Geographic Congress, 5, 76, 260-261

Inyo County, 11, 406

Inyo National Forest, 26, 124

Ionian Basin, 27, 104

Ireland Creek and Lake, 11, 407

Iron Mountain, 23, 32; ill., 23, 30-31

Ironwood, Catalina (Lyonothammus ftoribundus), 18, 66

Irrigation, 4, 246-247; 6, 282

Irvine, Mt., 12, 306; 26, 118

Isberg Pass, 11, 407; Trail, 20, 59, 60; 25, 114

Isberg Peak, 11, 407

Island Pass, ill., 7, 6

Isosceles Mountain, see Merriam, Mt.

Italy, Lake, 11, 407

Italy Pass, 27, 63

Ixtaccihuatl (Mexico), 8, 52, 104-107; ill., 8, 96, 104-106

Izaak Walton, Mt., 11, 45-46; 24, 10; ill., 15, 30, 74; 24, 1

Izalco, Mt. (Salvador), 4, 269

J

J. O. Pass, 11, 407

Jack Main Canyon, 1, 181; 2, 280-283; map, 1, 179; name, 12, 126

Jackass Meadow, 1, 333-335; 11, 137; ill., 11, 136; see also Perfection Meadow

Jackrabbit, White-tailed (Lepus townsendi sierrae), 12, 343; 17, 14

Jackson Lake (Grand Teton N. P.), 11, 161-162; ill., 11, 164; 12, 356

"Jam Crack Joe" (song), 29, 82-89

Jan, Lake (Utah), 24, 109-120; ill., 24, 62-63

Janet, Lake (Glacier N. Po), ill., 12, 160

Japan, 6, 186-195; 7, 229-233; 22, 93-94; see also Asama-Yama; Fujiyama ; Ho-daka; Karuizawa; Yari, Mt.

Jasper Park (Canada), 14, 28-33

Jay, Blue-fronted (Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis), 6, 245-246; 8, 122; Rocky Mountain, 4, 139

Jay hawker Spring (Death Valley), 24, 88-89

Jay hawker Well, see McLean 's Spring

"Jay hawkers," 24, 78, 87-99, 105

Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, see Mill Creek Redwoods State Park

Jefferson, Mt. (Oregon), 3, 203-209; 12, 309-310; ill., 3, 189, 204, 208

Jennie Lake, 11, 407

Jenny Lake (Grand Teton N. P.), ill., 11, 165

Jerusalem Oak, see Mountain misery

Jester, Mt. (Canada), 22, 30; ill., 22, 30-31

Jigsaw Pass, 24, 45-46

Joe Devel 's Peak, 23, 108-109; 26, 118

John Muir-Kings Canyon National Park, see Kings Canyon National Park

John Muir Memorial Shelter, 16, 12, 97-98; 19, 7; 22, 99-100; 27, 91-92; ill., 16, 98; 19, 14-15; 25, 102-103

John Muir National Park, 10, 14; see also Kings Canyon National Park

John Muir Trail, 10, 14, 86-92, 213, 221-225, 330, 343; 11, 34-48, 358; 12, 416-417; 14, 83; 15, 37-46; 17, 103-104; 20, 56-57; 26, 39, 143; beginnings, 10, 86-91; 20, 54-67; 25, 28-40; elevation and mileage, 11, 48; 15, 45; knapsack trip, 1927, 13, 81-82; map, 7, 22; 17, 106; route, 10, 86-91; 11, 34-48, 358; 15, 40; ski trip, 1929, 15, 69-73; specifications and drawings, 15, 43-44; ill., 10, 89, 104, 105, 159, 178, 199, 214, 215, 422; see also High mountain route

Johnson, Mt., 27, 97

Jordan, Mt. (Kings-Kern), 17, 47, 119; 22, 105; 26, 134; first ascent, 1925,

12, 307

Jordan, Mt. (North Palisade), 1, 296; 5, 3; 17, 47; see also North Palisade

Joseph, Mt., 11, 376-378; 28, 39-42

Josephine Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 14. 37 .

Joshua tree, ill., 17, 71

Julius Caesar, Mt., 19, 97

Jumbo (Canada), 9, 246

Jumbo Glacier, ill., 9, 245, 246

Junco, Sierra (Junco oreganus thurberi), 6, 251-252; 8, 158; ill., 8, 158

Junction Meadow, ill., 8, 274

Junction Pass, 10, 175, 218; 11, 36; ill., 10, 178, 214, 422 -

Junction Peak, 3, 172; 11, 407; 18, 127; 26, 40, 129, 135; first ascent, 1899, 3, 172; 11, 407; 26, 40; ill., 8, 69; 18, 14, 15

June Lake, 11, 407; 12, 128; ill., 33, 102-103

Juniper (Juniperus), 4, 118-125; AIligator (Juniperus pachyphlaea), 4, 120; Basin (Juniperus utahensis), 4, 122; California (Juniperus calijornica), 4, 121; Cosnino (Juniperus utahensis cosnino), 4, 122-123; ill., 4, 103; Creeping (Juniperus communis Siberica), 4, 121; ill., 4, 111; Mountain, see Juniper, Western; One-seeded (Juniperus monosperma), 4, 124; Prickly (Oxycedrus), 4, 120-121; Rock (Juniperus scopulorum), 4, 124-125; Savin, see Sabina; Sierra, see Juniper, Western; Western (Juniperus occidentalis), 4, 123; 10, 298-303; 18, 115-116; ill., 4, 123; 10, 300, 301, 304, 305; 12, 244; 13, 81; 16, 22, 23; 18, 115; 25, 14-15; 28, 78-79; Wyoming (Juniperus Knightii), 4, 125

Junipero Serra, Mt., 6, 52-53

Junipers of Lake Valley, 10, 298-303

K

"K2" (Himalayas), see Godwen Austen, Mt.

Kaiser Pass and Peak, 12, 49

Kanawyer, 12, 49

Kangchenjunga (Himalayas), ill., 31, 14-15

Karakoram Range (Himalayas), 7, 250-251; ill., 31, 14-15

Karstens Ridge (Mt. McKinley N. P.), 18, 83; 28, 10-15; ill., 18, 86, 87; 28, 30-31

Karuizawa (Japan), 6, 186; ill., 6, 186

Kat Pinnacle, 26, 138

Kat Walk, 24, 129; 25, 54

Kaweah, Black see Black Kaweah

Kaweah, Mt., 2, 187; 4, 306; 7, 27-30; 12, 49; first ascent, 1881, 11, 254; 12, 49; 32, 81; ill., 4, 304, 306; 7, 30

Kaweah, Red see Red Kaweah

Kaweah, South, see Kaweah, Mt.

Kaweah Gap, ill., 9, 2; 18, 46; 22, 62-63

Kaweah peaks, 2, 185-191; 11, 254; 12, 49; " Gray Kaweah, " 21, 99; " Second Kaweah, " 12, 49; map, 2, 185; ill., 4, 304, 306; 5, 297; 7, 27; 9, 2-3; 11, 132, 172, 347, 410-411; 13, 17, 25; 18, 39; 22, 14-15, 62-63

Kaweah Peaks " Pass ", 7, 33-38

Kaweah River, 2, 185; 12, 49; Middle Fork, ill., 10, 135; 13, 37

Kearsarge Lakes, 12, 49-50; ill., 4, 95; 8, 12; 10, 207, 407; 12, 220; 26, 94-95; 29, 46-47

Kearsarge Pass, 2, 20; 4, 95; 9, 160; 12, 49; crossing, 1864, 10, 340; origin of name, 10, 342; 12, 49-50; poem, 20, 50-53; Winter ascent, 7, 237-242; ill., 4, 95; 7, 238-241; 8, 67, 68; 10, 407; 12, 237; 15, 70

Kearsarge Peak, 12, 49-50

Kearsarge Pinnacles, 12, 49-50; 18, 126; 25, 123; ill., 1, lOO; 4, 95; 7, 239; 8, 12; 10, 179, 190, 207, 407; 12, 220; 26, 94-95

Keeler Needle, 12, 50; 26, 114; ill., 10, 175; 32, 30-31

Keith, Mt., 2, 84; 10, 237; 12, 50; first ascent, 1898, 2, 274; 12, 50; 26, 40

Kennedy Lake, Meadow and Pass, ill., 2, 280

Kern Basin : Cross-section diagram, 22, 18; ill., 22, 14-15, 30-31

Kern Canyon, see Kern River Canyon

Kern Lake, ill., 4, 302; 5, 58; 7, 27; 8, 275; 9, 17; 10, 423

Kern Point, 26, 131

Kern Ridge, 22, 105

Kern River, 4, 301-307; 9, 16-24; 12, 50; discovery, 13, 56; headwaters, ill., 13, 29; 22, 62-63; 32, 30-31; origin of name, 12, 50; 15, 87; trails, 7, 195; 9, 111-112

Kern River Canyon, 4, 301-307; 5, 57-61; 7, 99; birds, 5, 102; glaciation, 13, 17-19; lightning-struck tree, 9, 25-27; ill., 5, 60; 9, 16, 21; 13, 28; 22, 14-15

Kern-Kaweah Canyon, 8, 166; 9, 21; ill., 7, 38

Kern-Kaweah Falls, ill., 5, 106

Kern-Kaweah Gap, ill., 4, 304

Kern-Kaweah Pass, 11, 130

Kern-Kaweah River, 2, 188; 7, 37; 9, 21; 12, 50; ill., 8, 166, 167

Kern-Kaweah Valley, see Kern-Kaweah Canyon

Kerrick Canyon, 1, 179; map, l, 177, 179

Kettle Dome, 11, 313

Keyser, see Kaiser

Keystone, ill., 4, 304, 306

Kid Peak, 26, 18, 127

Kilauea (Hawaii N. P.) 11, 231-243; ill., 11, 242, 243

Kinabalu (North Borneo) 8, 18-24; ill., 8, 18

King, Mt. Clarence, see Clarence King, Mt.

King, Starr, see Starr King, Mt.

King Spur, 26, 128

Kinglet, Ruby-crowned (Regulus calendula), 8, 161-162; ill., 8, 162

Kings Canyon National Park: boundary extension of Sequoia N. P. proposed by Sierra Club, 8, 207, 220-221; 12, 76-77; cave discovered, 6, 275; created, 1940, 26, 56-57; development plan, 1947, 32, 112-125; maps, 32, 112, 119; highway extension, 32, 112-125; 34, 41-45; legislative history, 11, 6; 26, 42-58; national park status proposed, 6, 115-125; 10, 14; 11, 29-33; trails and trail development, 3, 150-158; 23, 88-89; 26, 123-124; water-power sites opposed by Sierra Club, 11, 441-446; see also John Muir National Park; Kings River; Kings River Canyon; " Roosevelt-Sequoia N. P ."

Kings Canyon Road, 6, 121, 203-205, 276; 7, 130-131, 195; see also Kings Canyon National Park-Highway extension

Kings Kern Divide, see Kings-Kern Divide

Kings River: early history, 10, 340; 12, 51; 26, 28-41; map 1, 302; origin of name, 10, 237-238; 12, 51; 13, 58; 26, 29; water-power site applications, 11, 441-446; see also Kings River, Middle Fork of the; Kings River, South Fork of the; Kings River Canyon

Kings River, Middle Fork of the, 1, 293-313; 5, 1; 6, 119; 10, 352-356; map, 2, 49; 5, 18; ill., 6, 115, 120; 7, 1, 18, 19, 253, 256; 8, 41, 280; 9, 125, 146; 10, 222; 11, 37, 149, 153, 173, 180, 181, 196; 21, 30-31; 26, 14-15; 29, 46-47

Kings River, South Fork: headwaters, 1, 293-313; 4, 177-184, 253-263; 7, 180-187; 8, 163; Upper Basin, 9, 56; 11, 421-426; ill., 11, 423; 25, 14-15; 26, 14-15; see also below

Kings River Canyon, 2, 44-49, 106-109; 4, 88-99, 153; 6, 100-107, 115-125; 10, 352-356; 12, 224-236, 237-249; 20, 54, 66; 26, 1-8, 9-14; cave, 6, 275; compared with Yosemite Valley, 4, 96-99; 6, 115-117; 12, 224-236; 26, 5; cross-section diagram, 10, 71; 12, 232; early explorations, 12, 237-249; 26, 1-14, 28-41; geology, 4, 96; 12, 224-236; glaciers, 10, 69; 12, 229; history, 26, 28-41; in 1868, 12, 237-249; Indians, 26, 28; map, 12, 228; 32, 112; master plan map, 1947, 32, 112; mines, 26, 37; national park status, 6, 123; 26, 57; plant life, 26, 4; road, see Kings Canyon Road; Sierra Club report and recommendations, 6, 115-127; trails and routes, 1, 93-106, 209-213, 221-237; 3, 15G-158; 6, 120-121, 124; 7, 120; 11, 314; 20, 54-67; 23, 88-89; Winter, 4, 156-159; ill., 6, 100, 104; 9, 158; 10, 69, 71; 12, 225, 229, 317; 26, 1, 14-15, 94-95; see also Kings Canyon National Park; Kings Canyon Road; Kings River, South Fork of the

Kings-Kern Divide, 1, 214-220; map, 2, 26; ill., 1, 92, 187; 2, 22; 8, 15; 10, 207; 26, 95

Kinnerly Peak (Glacier N. P.), 23, 103; ill., 12, 162

Kintla Peak (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 162

Kirkwood 's, 1, 321

Kit Carson tree, 1, 321; 2, 59

Klamath Lake Bird Sanctuary, 11, 95-97

Klamath River Road, 11, 451

Klapatchie Park (Mt. Rainier N. P.), 16, 64; ill., 16, 62, 67

Knapsack Pass, 24, 49; 27, 63

Knapsack trips, 1, 314-324; 27, 128-130; 32, 99-103; see also Camping; Packing

Knapsacking see Knapsack trips

Knots, 16, 70-72, 75; see also Bowline knot; Butterfly noose; Diamond hitch

Koip Crest, 12, 51; 25, 122

Koip Pass, 27, 62; ill., 11, 4

Kolana, ill., 7, 262

Korbel Peak, 3, 110

Kuna Crest and Peak, 12, 52; ill., 5, 220; 9, 247, 293

L

Lacey Transfer Bill, 4, 174

Ladder Lake, 27, 104

Lady Franklin Rock, 12, 52

Lafayette National Park, 11, 6; ill., 11, 12, 13; see also Acadia National Park ; Acadia Mountain

Laggard Pass, 10, 295

Laguna Mountain Recreation Area, 10, 483

Lake Canyon Creek, see Grunigen Creek

Lake Fork, see Kings River

Lake of the Fallen Moon (Poem), 11, 374

Lake of the Lone Indian, see Lone Indian, Lake of the Lake ramparts, 5, 157; 6, 225-234; bibliography, 6, 233-234; ill., 6, 225

Lakes, Salt and Alkaline, 3, 71-74

Lall, Lake (Utah), 24, 109-119; ill., 24, 62-63

Lamarck, Mt., 27, 92-93

Lamarck Col, 27, 89

Lambert, see Lembert

Lambert Soda Springs, see Soda Springs (Tuolumne Meadows)

Langille Peak, 27, 105, 129; ill., 19, 14-15

Langley, Mt., 1, 6; 12, 52; 26, 119; first ascent, 1871, 11, 253; 14, 41-43, 26, 119; mistaken for Mt. Whitney, 7, 141; 11, 253; 14, 41-43; origin of name, 12, 52; ill., 1, 6; 7, 147; 10, 175; 14, 46; 22, 14-15; 32, 30-31

Langue Peak, ill., 7, 256

Lanivireo see Vireo

Larch (Larix), 2, 76, 78; Western (Larix occidentalis), 2, 76; Wooly ( Larix Lyalli ), 2, 76

Larix see Larch

Lassen, Mt., 2, 207-215; 3, 288-297; eruptions, 9, 300-304; 10, 92-96; Winter ascent, 18, 128-129; ill., 9, 298-302; 10, 96, 97; 17, 50

Lassen Butte, see Lassen, Mt.

Lassen National Forest, 4, 320-322

Lassen Volcanic National Park, 10, 244; 11, 324

Laterales pines, 2, 67, 72-75

Laurel Mountain, 16, 106

Lava, 11, 242-243; ill., 11, 242, 243

Lava Beds National Monument, 2, 312-319; ill., 2, 318-319

Lava Region of California, see California -Lava regions of Northern California

LeConte, Mt., 12, 53; 14, 86; 23, 109-110; 24, 131; first ascent, 1, 325-326; 12, 305; 26, 119; ill., 1, 325; 14, 46; 22, 15; 32, 30-31

LeConte Canyon, 12, 54; ill., 9, 159; 11, 153

LeConte Cascade, see LeConte Falls

LeConte Divide, 12, 52

LeConte Dome, see Half Dome

LeConte Falls, 1, 204; 4, 28; 12, 52; ill., 4, 31; 7, 218

LeConte Gully, 25, 53

LeConte memorial lectures, 11, 414, 435

LeConte Memorial Lodge (Yosemite), 5, 66-69; 10, 142-143; 11, 91; dedication services and address, 5, 176-180, 254; inscription, 5, 296; opening, 5, 135; reports, 5, 241; 6, 129, 268; 7, 59, 191; 8, 129, 210; 9, 50, 181, 294; 10, 83, 215, 328; 11, 92, 201, 308, 435; 12, 83, 187, 414; 13, 71; 14, 77; 15, 103; 16, 95; 17, 100; 18, 106; 19, 79; 20, 100; 21, 80; ill., 5, 1, 66; 10, 143, 395; 11, 208

Leaning Chimney, 26, 137; 27, 136

Leaning Tower, 21, 98; 25, 54

Leevining Creek, 12, 54; 13, 83-85

Lefroy, Mt. (Canada), 2, 1-8, 149-155; ill., 2, 5, 152; 8, 189

Lembert Dome, 7, 150; 12, 54; ill., 6, 235; 8, 1; 9, 225, 293; 11, 411; 16, 39

Leucosticte, see Finch, Rosy

Lewis, Mt., 16, 62

Lewis Creek, 12, 54

Lewisia, see Bitterroot

Liberty Bell, Mt. (Washington), 23, 46

Liberty Cap (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 1, 125; see also Rainier, Mt.-North Peak

Liberty Cap (Yosemite), ill., 3, 28

Libocedrus, 4, 101; see also Cedar, Incense

Lick Observatory, 11, 408-412

Liebre Peaks, 31, 116

Lieu Land Law, 5, 327-328

Life zones, 3, 298-312; 4, 132-145; 27, 80-81

Light-burning, see Forest fires-" Light burning"

Lightning, 9, 25-27; 17, 105-107; 34, 27-30; diagrams, 34, 28-29; fatalities on Bugaboo Spire, 1948, 34, 70-73; fire zones, 11, 447; lightning-struck tree in Kern Canyon, 9, 25-27; ill., 9, 26, 27

Lilium Kelleyanum, 4, 300

Lily, Mariposa, ill., 12, 33

Lincoln, Mt., ill., 27, 30-31

Lining, 27, 57

Lion, Mountain, see Mountain lion

Lion Rock, 2, 186; ill., 11, 410-411

Lippincott, Mt., 12, 54; ill., 11, 410-411

Little America, 26, 98-101

Little chief hare see Cony

Little Claire Lake, 4, 214; 12, 54

Little Five Lakes, ill., 13, 92

" Little Gem Co., " 26, 72-77

Little Jackass Meadows, 1, 335

Little Kern Lake, ill., 10, 170

Little Lakes Valley, ill., 27, 30-31

" Little Lost Valley" of Shepherd Crest,

see Shepherd Crest-" Little Lost Valley"

Little Pete Meadow, ill., 19, 14-15

Little South Fork (Trinity Alps), 21, 15

Little Yosemite Valley, 7, 40-41; 8, 3-9; 12, 39; ill., 3, 28; 5, 216; 8, 6, 7

Live-oak, Foothill ( Quercus Wislizeni ), 3, 303

Lobelia (Downingia montana ), 11, 147-148

Loch Leven trout, see Trout, Loch Leven

Logan, Mt. (Glacier N. P.), 23, 102

Logan Glacier (Glacier N. P .), ill., 12, 162

Logan Pass (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 41; .30, 46-47

Lola, Mt., 31, 12

Lone Indian, Lake of the, 4, 197; 12, 55; ill., 4, 197; 11, 44

Lone Pine Canyon, 7, 105-118; ill., 22, 14-15

Lone Pine Creek, 5, 88

Lone Pine Peak, 26, 118; ill., 1, 326; 22, 15

Long Lake, ill., 9, 307; 10, 297

Long Meadow, ill., 11, 25

Longley Pass, 1, 190; 12, 55; 27, 63; ill., 1, 192, 193

Longs Peak (Rocky Mountain N. P.), 3, 196-197; 13, 62-64; ill., 3, 196, 198; 7, 234-235; 13, 64, 65

Lookout Mountain, see Sugarloaf

Lookout Peak, 4, 187; 12, 145, 242, 245

Los Angeles Municipal Mountain Camp, 10, 335

Los Gatos Creek, ill., 2, 301

Lost Arrow, 12, 55; 21, 99; 23, 119; 25, 59; 27, 134; 31, 118; first ascent, 1946, 31, 121-122; 32, 1-10; vertical ascent, 1947, 33, 103-108; ill., 26, 94-95; 32, 1, 12, 13; 33, 102-103

Lost Brother, 27, 133-134

Lost Canyon, ill., 7, 100; 9, 20

Lost Valley (Merced Canyon), 7, 40

Lost Valley (San Joaquin River), see Blaney Meadows

Louise, Lake (Canada), 2, 1; 23, 103; ill., 2, 1

Lowell Peak (Canada), 34, 144

Lucy, Lake, see Rae Lakes

Lucy 's Footpass, 3, 109

Lukachukai Mountain (Arizona), 24, 72

Lukens Lake, 12, 55

Lukens Trail, 2, 109

Lumbering, 10, 375; 32, 37-42

Lundy, 13, 40-53; ill., 13, 40, 41

Luther Pass, ill., 11, 295

Lycoperdon sculptum, 6, 39-42; ill., 6, 39

Lyell, Mt., 11, 185, 247-248; 12, 55-56; first ascent, 11, 247; 12, 56, 304-305; 23, 7; ascents, 1, 136-143; 4, 22-23; 5, 181-186; 7, 218; 9, 251-253; ascent in one day from Yosemite Valley, 23, 110; 26; 143; glacier, see Lyell Glacier; origin of name, 11, 246; 12, 55; south face ascents, 20, 104; 24, 126; Winter ascent, 23, 41; ill., 1, 66; 3, 326; 5, 20, 184; 7, 94, 95; 9, 250, 251; 10, 231; 11, 49, 410; 15, 47; 17, 22, 23; 20, 104; 29, 46-47; routes of ascent, ill., 20, 104

Lyell Fork, see Merced River -Lyell Fork; Tuolumne River-Lyell Fork

Lyell Glacier, 1, 63-64; 5, 23, 183, 276; 11, 185, 247; 23, 6-7; ill., 5, 20; 7, 188, 189; 11, 49; 17, 22

Lyell group, ill., 7, 95

Lyell Meadows, ill., 11, 258

Lyman Glacier (Washington), ill., 8, 181

Lyman Lake (Washington), ill., 8, 184

Lyonothammus, see Ironwood

M

McAdie, Mt., 5, 317; 14, 86; 18, 133; 26, 117; ill., 7, 147

McArthur, Lake (Canada), ill., 8, 185

McCabe Lake, ill., 18, 71

McClure, Mt., see Maclure, Mt.

McClure Glacier, see Maclure Glacier

McClure Lake, 12, 57

McClure Meadow, 12, 57; ill., 11, 137

McClure 's Pass, map, 1, 173

McCormick, Mt. (Canada), 33, 125

McDermott, Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 36, 45

McDonald, Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 7, 225, 228-229; 23, 110; 30, 46-47

McDonald Peak (Canada), ill., 13, 9

McGee, Mt., 16, 104; 19, 93; 27, 101; ill., 12, 181

McGee Lake trail, 25, 113

McGonagall Pass (Mt. McKinley N. P.), 18, 81; ill., 18, 83

"Machete," The, (Pinnacles National Monument), 25, 130-131; ill., 25, 102-103

McKinley, Mt. (Mt. McKinley N. P., Alaska), 6, 280; 18, 81-87; 28, 1-35; 30, 95; 34, 95-109; first ascent, 1913, 18, 82; first ascent of North Peak by " Sourdough" party, 1910, 18, 81-82; 34, 99-106; second ascent, 1932, 18, 81-87; ascent claimed by Dr. Cook, 1906, 6, 280; 34, 97-98; bibliography, 34, 109; discovery and exploration, 34, 95-97; Dr. Cook's false summit, 34, 107; ill., 34, 95; origin of name, 18, 81; 34, 96; " Sourdough" party, 18, 81-82; 34, 99-106; ill., 34, 94-95; temperature, 18, 83-84; war equipment testing expedition, 28, 1-35; ill., 18, 82, 83, 86, 87; 28, 30-31; 34, 94-95; see also Karstens Ridge; Mount McKinley N. P.; Muldrow Glacier

McKinley grove, 10, 296

McKinney's, 1, 317

McLean's Spring, 24, 80, 101

McLoughlin, Mt., ill., 17, 51

Maclure, Mt., 12, 56; 20, 104; ill., 3, 326; 5, 23; 7, 94, 95; 9, 250; 10, 231; 11, 410; 17, 22; 20, 104; 29, 46-47; routes of ascent, ill., 20, 104

Maclure Glacier, ill., 5, 23; 17, 22

Macomb Ridge, 12, 56

Madary's Pass, 1, 195; ill., 1, 196; see also Harrison 's Pass

Magic Circle, 11, 275-283

Magpie, 4, 134-135; ill., 4, 134

Mahogany, Mountain (Cercocarpus parvifolius), 3, 308

Malaspina Glacier (Alaska), 2, 134-141

Malheur Lake Bird Sanctuary, 11, 95

Mallory, Mt., 12, 306; 21, 100; 26, 117; ill., 14, 43

Mammoth Hot Springs (Yellowstone N . P, ), ill., 12, 437

Mammoth Mine, 13, 48

Mammoth Mountain, 21, 57

Manly Lake, 17, 76

Manly Lookout, 24, 85, 86

Manzanita (Arctostaphylos), 3, 305, 309; ill., 3, 305

Maps: Big Basin, 3, 218; Mt. Brewer east basin, 3, 108; Brown, Prof. Bolton Coit, 1, 302; 2, 26; Brue map of California, 28, 30-31, 41; Bubbs Creek basin, 2, 114, 128, 271; Burr map of California, 28, 30-31, 41; California, 15, 83, 90, 91; 28, 30-31, 40-41; Carson Pass, 15, 83; Cartridge Pass trail, 17, 106; Center Basin, 2, 271; Colby Pass region, 11, 128; Crater Lake, 1, 37; Crespi map of San Francisco Bay, 13, 56; Death Valley, 24, 62-63, 78; Devils Postpile National Monument, 8, 226-227; Eagle Peak Falls site, 7, 224; Estudillo map of San Joaquin Valley, 26, 30; Evolution region, 5, 229; Fall River Mills to Susanville, 2, 194; Fish Creek upper basin, 4, 205; Fractional scales, 5, 260; Fremont explorations, 15, 83, 90, 91; Gallatin map of California, 28, 30-31, 40; Goddard Creek region, 12, 8; Grand Canyon of the Colorado, 4, 80; Grouse Meadow to Vidette Meadow, 11, 358-359; Hell-for-Sure Pass Trail, 17, 106; High mountain route, 7, 22; High Sierra Camps, 12, 38; Jack Main Canyon, 1, 179; John Muir Trail, 7, 22; 17, 106; Kaweah Peaks, 2, 185; Kerrick Canyon, 1, 177, 179; Kings River, Head-waters, 1, 302; Middle Fork, 5, 18; Kings River Canyon and Kings Canyon National Park, 2, 49; 12, 228 (development plans, 1947, 32, 119; Master plan, 1947, 32, 112); Kings-Kem Divide, 2, 26; LeConte map of Sierra Nevada, 4, 311; 25, 35; Little Lost Valley of Shepherd Crest, 18, 69; 34, 84; McClure's Pass, 1, 173; Medicine Lake Lava region, 2, 312; Mountaineers' Olympic outing, 9, 148; Muir Crest, 26, 110; Muir Gorge trail, 1, 206; Olympic Range (Washington), 9, 148; Ouzel Basin, 3, 109; Palisades, 5, 18; 24, 46; Pinchot Pass trail, 17, 106; Pine Ridge trail, 1, 210; Preuss map of California, 15, 91; Rae Lakes basin, 3, 136; Ritter range, 23, 30; Ritter-Whitney triangulation, 2, 286; Roaring River, 11, 128; Mt. St. Elias, 2, 136; San Francisco Bay region, 13, 56; San Joaquin River, South Fork, 5, 229; San Joaquin Valley, 26, 30; Sequoia National Park, 8, 220; 12, 416; Shepherd Crest, 18, 69; 34, 84; Sierra Club Soda Springs property, 9, 37; Sierra Nevada, 4, 311; 25, 35; 32, 78; Sixty Lakes Basin, 3, 136; Slide Canyon to Kerrick Canyon, 1, 177; Susanville to Fall River Mills, 2, 194; Taboose Pass trail, 17, 106; Tehipite Valley, 12, 127; to Kings River Canyon, 2, 49; Tenaya Canyon, 9, 134; Triangulation between Mt. Ritter and Mt. Whitney, 2, 286; Tuolumne Meadows property, 9, 37; United States Geologic SuI:Vey maps, 2, 115-117; Vernon Lake region, 1, 185; Vidette Meadow to Grouse Meadow, 11, 359; Whitney region, 26, 110; Whitney-Ritter triangulation, 2, 286; Mt. Whitney trail, 1, 1; Wilkes map of California, 28, 31, 40; Yokut Indians range, 12, 388; Yosemite, Lake (ancient), 9, 11; Yosemite High Sierra Camps, 12, 38; Yosemite mining history, 13, 43; Yosemite Valley, 12, 228

Marble Canyon (Colorado River), ill., 27, 78-79

Marble Mountain Primitive Area, 18, 29

Margaret, Lake (Canada), ill., 2, 264

Marian, Lake (Utah), 24, 109-120; ill., 24, 62-63

Marie Lake, ill., 11, 40

Marin County fire of 1945, 31, 18-23

Marine borer protection, 8, 78

Marion Gorge (Olympic N. P.), ill., 9, 150

Marion Lake, 4, 259; 12, 56, 154; ill., 12, 316

Marion Peak, 12, 154

Mariposa Battalion, 25, 41; 26, 30-31

Mariposa grove, 3, 24-25; 5, 242-250; 6, 58-61; 7, 219; 12, 57

Marjorie, Lake, 12, 57

Marmolata (Canada), 26, 61

Marmot, 4, 281; 6, 37; 21, 86; ill., 12, 105, 120

Marmot Ridge, 3, 110

Marsh, Mt., 7, 109; ill., 7, 111

Marten, 17, 18; 21, 86

Martha Lake, 12, 57; 27, 88

Marvin Pass, 12, 57

Massive, Mt. (Colorado), 29, 22-23

Mather Pass, 11, 269-270, 359-367, 423, 424; 12, 57, 417-418; 16, 107; 27, 91; ill., 11, .362, 423; 15, 71

Matlock Lake, ill., 7, 240

Matterhorn (Alps), 6, 75-86; 13, 82-83; 14, 85; 18, 111; 25, 73-87; 30, 81-82; ill., 6, 75, 78, 82; 31, 14-15

Matterhorn Canyon, 1, 175; ill., 8, 209

Matterhorn Peak (Yosemite N. P.), 3, 159-163; 4, 287; 11, 256; 20, 76, 106; 22, 53; 27, 126; ill., 3, 118-162

Matterhorn Peak, False, ill., 3, 118

Matthes Crest, 17, 113; 34, 110-111; ill., 15, 59; 20, 110-111; 34, 86-87; see also Echo Ridge

Maturango Peak, 27, 138

May Lake trail, 25, 113

May Lundy mine, 13, 40-53; ill., 13, 40

Maye, Lake (Canada), 9, 242; ill., 9, 240

Mayon (Philippine Islands), 4, 228-234

Mazamas, 2, 57-58; 6, 132; 9, 200; 10, 231; 12, 309, 422-423; 13, 89; 14, 89-90; 15, 111; 17, 108; 18, 121; Glacier Peak outing, 1911, 8, 174-184; Mt. Jefferson outing, 1900, 3, 203-209; Mt. Rainier outing, 1897, 2, 192-193; 3, 271-287; 1914, 9, 310; Mt. St. Helens outing, 1909, 7, 170-179; Three Sisters outing, 1910, 8, 53-54

Mead, Lake (Colorado River), 24, 124

Meadows, deterioration and protection, 8, 39-42; 27, 16; 32, 53-62; 34, 140-143; ill., 8, 40, 41; 32, 62-63; see also Wilderness areas and preservation

Meadows, Poison, 4, 195, 213

Medicine Bow Mountains (Wyoming), 12, 283-288; ill., 12, 288

Medicine Lake lava region, 2, 312-319; map, 2, 312; ill., 2, 314, 316, 318; see also Modoc Lava Beds

Melanerpes formicivorus, see woodpecker, California

Mendel, Mt., 16, 104; 27, 98

Mentzelia, see Blazing-star

Merced Canyon, 2, 105; 6, 235-237, 290-293; 7, 39-48; 8, 152-153; ill., 3, 28; 6, 236, 292; 7, 171

Merced Canyon soda springs, see Soda Springs-Merced Canyon

Merced grove, 12, 57

Merced Lake, 7, 40; 12, 57; ill., 6, 236; 7, 39, 171; 20, 30-31

Merced Lake Camp, 12, 40

Merced Pass and Peak, 12, 57

Merced Range, 11, 187-188

Merced River, 2, 197-199; 7, 265; 25, 114; discovery and naming, 12, 57; 13, 58; Lyell Fork, 11, 315; 17, 8; ill., 6, 307; 7, 87; 8, 132; 11, 258; 17, 23; 20, 30-31

Merriam, Mt., 17, 123; 19, 93; ill., 19, 94-95

Merritt, Mt. (Glacier N. P .), 12, 165-167; ill., 12, 5

Mesa Verde National Park, 9, 65, 321

Metasequoia, 34, 82

Meteorological observatories, 5, 314; 6, 7-14, 177-185; see also Conness, Mt.; Rainier, Mt.; Rose, Mt.; Whitney, Mt.; Shasta, Mt.

Mexico: Club de Exploraciones, see Club de Exploraciones de Mexico; mountains, 4, 264-273; 8, 96-109; see also Colima; Cordilleras; Ixtaccihuatl; Nevado de Toluca; Paricutin; Picacho del Diablo; Pico de Orizaba; Popocatepetl; San Felipe Desert; Sierra San Pedro Martir; Valle de la Grulla

Mice, 12, 344; 17, 20

Michaelis, Mt., 12, 58

Middle Fork, see name of river

Middle Kaweah, see Red Kaweah

Middle Palisade, 19, 96; 24, 42, 55-56; first ascent, 1921, 11, 252, 264-270; 12, 62; 24, 42; ascents, 12, 307; 16, 105, 107; 25, 16, 121; new route, 19, 96; West Peak, 16, 107; 19, 96; 24, 55; ill., 9, 189; 10, 223; 11, 197, 266, 267, 274, 423; 12, 325; 19, 94-95; routes of ascent, ill., 11, 266; see also Palisades

Middle Teton, 16, 47-54; ill., 16, 50, 51, 54; routes of ascent, ill., 16, 50

Milestone Basin . 9, 1-6; 18, 13; ill., 9, 2-3

Milestone Bow. see Milestone Bowl

Milestone Bowl. 2, 188; 9, 1-6; 12, 58; ill., 4, 306; 11, 121

Milestone Creek, ill., 13, 93; 18, 38

Milestone Mountain, 11, 313, 440; 12, 58-59; 26, 130; first ascent, 1912, 9, 1-6; 12, 59; ill., 9, 2-6, 48; 11, 120. 410-411; 18, 30, 31, 126; 22, 30" -31

Mill Creek Redwoods State Park (now Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park), 25, 106-107; ill., 25, 102-103

Miller Lake, 1 174; 12, 59; 28, 97

Mills, Mt., 15, 110; 32, 78

Mills Tower (Canada), 33, 125

Mimulus, 26, 67

Minaret Gap, 23, 23

Minaret Lake, ill., 23, 30-31

Minarets, 1, 74-76; 17, 114; 19, 99; 23, 110; 24, 6-7, 126; 31, 117; Climber's Guide, 23, 27-32; Clyde Minaret first ascent, 1928, 14, 87; 15, 109-110; 23, 27; comparison between Clyde and Michael Minaret, 15, 109; highest point, 15, 109; 17, 119; Leonard Minaret first ascent, 18, 134; map, 23, 30; Michael Minaret, 19, 83-85; 22, 106, 109; 23, 27; first ascent, 1923, 12, 28-33, 59; search for Walter A. Starr, Jr., 19, 81-85; ill., 1, 78; 6, 290, 304; 11, 48; 12, 28, 29; 15, 31; 23, 28, 29, 30" -31; 24, 30-31; 33, 30-31; 34, 15; see also Ritter Range

Mineral King, 3, 170, 255-257; 12, 59; winter sports possibilities, 34, 112-118; ill., 33, 102-103

Miner's Peak, see Sawtooth Peak

Mining history east of Yosemite, 13, 40-53; map, 13, 42; ill., 13, 40, 41, 48, 49

" Minnesota National Park " proposed, 3, 263

Minster, 3, 110; 25, 123

Mirror Lake (Yosemite N. P.), 3, 34; 8, 94; 9, 318; 12, 59; 25, 112; ill., 8, 89

Mirror Point, 26, 116

" Mississippi Boys, " 24, 78-105

Mist Falls, 1, 243; 8, 16; ill., 26, 14-15

Mitchell Meadow and Peak, 12, 59

Miter, 26, 118

Moat Lake (Canada), ill., 13, 5; 14, 30, 71

Modoc Lava Beds, 2, 312-319; 12, 96; see also Medicine Lake lava region

Momotombo (Nicaragua), 4, 270

Monarch Divide, ill., 11, 173

Monkey-flower, 26, 67

Mono County, 12, 59

Mono Craters, 3, 80-81

Mono Creek, 1, 226; 12, 59; Poison meadows, 4, 195; ill., 32, 30-31

Mono Creek Canyon, 1, 221-237; 2, 251-262; 4, 194; 7, 8-14; ill., 2, 256

Mono Creek Pass, see Mono Pass

Mono Lake, 3, 78-79, 82-83; 7, 95, 195; 12, 59; ill., 3, 326

Mono Lake Basin road, 7, 130

Mono Mesa, 32, 15-18, 130

Mono National Forest, 26, 124

Mono Pass, 12, 59; 15, 113-115; ill., 7, 14; 10, 105

Mono Rock, 32, 131

Mono Trail, ill., 10, 293

Montara Club, 4, 313

Montgomery, Mt., 20, 102

Monument Peak (Death Valley), 25, 117-118; ill., 25, 102-103

Monument Valley (Arizona), 24, 68-73

Moose, 12, 335; ill., 12, 340

Moraga expedition, 1806, 13, 58

Moraine Dome, 25, 112

Moraine Lake, 4, 306; 9, 19; 10, 226-227; ill., 7, 27; 9, 18-19; 10, 174, 198; 11, 172

Moraine Park (Rocky Mountain N. P.), 3, 194-196; ill., 3, 193, 195; see also Willow Park

Moraines, see Glaciers and glaciation

Moran, Mt. (Grand Teton N. P.), 11, 161-166; 12, 365-367; 32, 129; ill., 11, 164; 12, 356, 360, 368

Moran Point (Yosemite), 25, 112

Moro Rock, 12, 60; 25, 127-128; 34, 145-146

Morris Meadow (Trinity Alps), 21, 15

Morrison, Mt., 12, 60; 32, 130

Mott Lake, 13, 85; ill., 15, 23

Mount Desert Island (Maine), ill., 11, 12, 13; see also Acadia N.P.

Mount Lyell Camp, 12, 40

Mount McKinley National Park (Alaska), 10, 244; see also Karstens Ridge; McGonagaIl Pass ; McKinley, Mt.; Muldrow Glacier; Parker Pass

Mount Olympus National Park, see Olympic National Park

Mount Rainier National Park (Washington), 2, 320; 6, 44-51; 7, 194, 247; 8, 55, 222; 9, 65, 208, 320; 10, 99, 109, 248, 358, 367; animal life 6, 32-38;

Mountaineers' Outing, 1930, 16, 63-66; see also Cowlitz Glacier; Eagle Peak; Gibraltar Rock; Indian Henry's; Klapatchie Park; Liberty Cap; Navada Falls; Nisqually Glacier; Paradise Glacier; Paradise Park; Paradise River; Paradise Valley; Rainier, Mt.; Skyline Trail; Spray Park; Tatoosh Range; Unicorn Peak; .Van Trump Park

Mount Shasta Rest House, 11, 307

Mount Whitney Club Journal, 4, 318

Mount Whitney Trail, 1, 1-8; 5, 258-259; 14, 84; map, 1, I; ill., 1, 292; 22, 14-15, 62-63; 32, 31

Mountain beaver, see Beaver, Mountain

Mountain building, see Geological studies; Mountain summits

Mountain Creek (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 341

Mountain goat, 6, 20, 32; 7, 226; 12, 117; ill., 8, 177; 12, 186, 187

Mountain lion: Yellowstone N; P., 12, 338; Yosemite N. P., 10, 442; 17, 16; ill., 10, 442, 486

Mountain meadows, see Meadows

Mountain military training, 31, 46-56

Mountain misery (Chamaebatia foliolosa), 3, 311; 9, 4!}-42; ill., 9, 41

Mountain photography, see Photography

Mountain ranges of the United States, 6, 201-203

Mountain summits, 11, 181-193, 290-291

Mountain troops, see United States Army-Mountain troops

Mountain warfare, 31, 32-56

Mountaineering, see Climbing and mountaineering; Skiing and ski-mountaineering

Mountaineering and conservation organizations, see Alpine Club of Canada; Alpine Congress; American Alpine Club; Appalachian Mountain Club; Associated Mountaineering Clubs of North America; California Alpine Club; California Associated Societies for the Conservation of wildlife; California Botanical Society; Canadian Alpine Club; Club Alpin Franc; ais; Club Andino Boliviano; Club de Exploraciones de Mexico; Colorado Mountain Club; Deutscher und Oesterreichischer Alpenverein; French Alpine Club; Mazamas; Montara Club; Mountaineers Club of Seattle; N ational Parks Association; Save-the-Redwoods League; Scottish Mountaineering Club; Sierra Club; Southern California Conservation Association; Tamalpais Conservation Club

Mountaineers Club of Seattle, 9, 81-83; 149-158, 200, 311; 10, 232-233; 11, 91; 12, 310, 423; 13, 90; 15, 111; 16, 63-66, 101; 17, 108; 18, 123

Mountains, naming, see Place names

Muir, Mt., 12, 60, 306; 21, 100-102; 26, 116; ill., 14, 43; 22, 14-15; 32, 30-31

Muir Crest, 22, 6; bibliography, 26, 121; Climber's Guide, 26, 102-121; map, 26, 110; passes, 26, 105; ill., 22, 15, 110; see also Whitney region

Muir Gorge, 1, 14, 205-206; 2, 181; 7, 215-216; 12, 60; descents-swimming, 17, 82-88; 20, 42-45; naming, 1, 206; map, 1, 206; i" ., 6, 241; 7, 216; 17, 82, 83, 86, 87

Muir Hut (Muir Trail), see John Muir Memorial Shelter

Muir grove, 12, 60

Muir Lodge (San Gabriel Range), 9, 80, 170-172, 181; 10, 60-61, 334; ill., 9, 170, 171; 10, 60

Muir Pass, 5, 236; 10, 346-347; 11, 3& -39, 139-140, 281; 12, 60; 27, 91, 129; ill., 11, 141, 181; 12, 248; 16, 11; 19, 14-15; 25, 14-15

Muir Pass-John Muir Memorial Shelter, see John Muir Memorial Shelter

Muir Trail, see John Muir Trail

Muir Woods National Monument, 6, 276, 285, 287-289; 11, 324-325; 13, 79; 21, 31; ill., 6, 285-288

Muldrow Glacier (Mt. McKinley N. P.), 28, 4-7; ill., 18, 83

Mules, 20, 71; 25, 14-15; 32, 10& -110; 33, 19-22; 34, 23-24; ill., 22, 95

Mulkey Meadows, 1, 4; 12, 61

Multiple-use policy of U. S. Forest Service, see United States Forest Service-Multiple-use policy

Municipal forests and forestry, 7, 204; Europe, 9, 74; San Diego, 8, 241-242

Murdock Lake, 12, 61

Muriel Lake, 27, 92

Muriel Peak, 27, 97

Muro BIanco, ill., 6, 118

Murphy Creek, 12, 61

Murray Canyon, 11, 351, 353

Muskeg, 14, 3

Muskrat, 12, 340

Mustagh Tower (Himalayas), ill., 31, 15

Myiochanes, see Pewee

Mystic Spring Trail, 3, 334

N

Names and naming, see Place names

Nance Peak, 12, 61

Nannus, see Wren

Narada Falls (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 9, 95

Narrative of Zenas Leonard, 27, 36-48

National Conference on Parks, 1921, 11, 196

National Conservation Commission, 7, 77

National forests: 6, 334-336; 11, 329-331; 32, 71-74; ~ agriculture, mining, fire and their influence on forest land, 3, 226-229; ill., 3, 226; American Forestry Congress, 1905, 5, 269-270; boundaries and boundary changes, 7, 135-137, 269-270; California, 12, 96; California Forestry Law, 1905, 5, 303-307; Clarke-McNary Act., 12, 317-318; concessions, 6, 335; denudation of vegetation, 2, 295-311; ill., 2, 295, 301; district administration, 7, 79, 82, 135, 137; Division of Forestry studiesfor scientific lumbering, 3, 200-202; experiment stations, 7, 81; federal vs. state control, 9, 72-73; fire prevention laws, 6, 208-209; fish planting, see Trout planting; forest fires and fire prevention, see Forest fires; grazing and pasturage (8, 80; 10, 483; 12, 298, 410; court decision, 4, 73-74; effects, 2, 295-311; 32, 36-42; High Sierra policy, 2, 292-293; limited grazing permission, 9, 104; Sierra Club stand, 27, 115-116; see also Grazing); hillside farmer and the forest, 5, 33-39; homestead laws, 5, 82-83, 150-152; 6, 70-72; list of national forests, 1908, 6, 336; management, 5, 145-150; 6, 334; maps, 10, 117, 375; multiple-use policy of U. S. Forest Service, 4, 71-72; 6, 125-National forest (cont.) 127; 32, 71-74; need for forest reserves, 1, 269-270; 2, 295-311; primitive areas, 18, 24-30; 23, 93-96; see also Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation; public camps, 11, 448; public lands withdrawal for national forests, 4, 247-249; reasons for federal control, 9, 46, 72; recreational uses, 10, 117-120, 253; 23, 85-93; reforesting, 3, 224-229; 7, 206-207; 8, 291; relation to national parks, 9, 60; 10, 253-255; 12, 98; revenue, 6, 139; 7, 80; San Francisco field headquarters, 7, 82; state regulation of deforestation, 6, 335; timber sales, 9, 116; transfer of reserves to Department of Agriculture, 5, 326; trout planting, see Trout Planting; United States Forest Service, see United States Forest Service; White Pine blister rust, 11, 334; see also Conservation; Forest fires; Forest Reservations and Forest Reserves; Forestry; Grazing; United States Forest Service; Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation; see also Angeles National Forest; Appalachian National Forest; Dakota National Forest; Inyo National Forest; Lassen National Forest; Ocala National Forest; Sequoia National Forest; Shasta National Forest; Tahoe National Forest; Trinity National Forest

National Irrigation Law, 1902, 4, 246

National Park Act, 1916, 10, 241

National Park Bureau, 8, 205, 231, 232-234, 282, 284

National Park Conferences, 8, 234; 9, 67; 10, 104, 250

National Park Idea, 12, 270, 348, 350; 33, 46-76; bibliography, 33, 77-78

National Park Service, 10, 362-372, 433; 11, II; 14, 69-70; beginnings, 8, 205, 232-235, 282-283; bill, 10, 113-114, 241-242; created, 1916, 10, 244; 26, 47; proposed, 9, 288; 10, 80; reports, 10, 362-372, 476-478

National Parks and Monuments: 4, 174; 8, 55-63, 217-239, 282-289; 9, 28-32, 60-69, 113-115, 106-208, 316-321; 10, 97-114, 214, 241-252, 362-372, 47~ 482; 11, 5-13, 117; Act of 1916, 10, 241; additions and extensions pro-National Park and Monuments (cont.) posed, 10, 107; 11, 6, 11-12; administration, 9, 114; animal life, 10, 107; 15, 108; animal problems survey, 1929, 15, 108; appropriations and revenues, 10, 103-105, 247-248, 349, 364; 11, 321; area, 1, 257; 8, 59; 10, 107; automobiles, 10, 104-105, 252; 11, 15, 321; California, 25, 108-116; commercial interests, 11, 212-214; conservation, 1, 272; 10, 107; dates of establishment, 8, 59; economic value, 10, 103, 349-350; first mention, 33, 52; grazing and pasturage, 10, 322-323, 330, 336-338, 371-372; 12, 176; growth and development, 8, 58-63; 11, 5-13, 212-218; jurisdiction, 10, 107; landscaping, 29, 61-66; list, 1, 257; 8, 59; National Park Service, see National Park Service; need, 8, 236-239; 9, 28-32, 60-61; 11, 117; " National Park Idea, " 33, 46-78; new national parks, 10, 108, 244; Frederic Law Olmsted on governmental preservation of natural scenery, 29, 61-66; origin, see National Park " Idea" ; overcrowding, 11, 15; 34, 31-54; patented lands, 9, 177; photograph exhibits, 8, 219; policy, 1; 0, 97-101, 478-482; private holdings, 8, 61; 9, 177; 10, 105-106; publications, 9, 69; recommendations proposed, 8, 58; 11, 11-12; relation to national forests, 9, 6{}-61; 10, 253-255; 12, 98-99; reports, 7, 197; 8, 231; 10, 113, 251; 11, 212-218; road standards, 34, 31-54; ill., 34, 34-35; trail development, see names of individual national parks; see also Trails, supervisors, 1918, 10, 372; visitors, 8, 63; 10, 103, 104-105, 252; 11, 89, 321; 34, 31-54; Water Power Act, 11, 321; see also Acadia National Park; " Appalachian N .P ." ; Bryce Canyon N. P.; Canyon de Chelly National Monument; Death Valley N. M.; General Grant N. P.; Glacier N. P.; Grand Canyon N. P.; Grand Teton N. P.; Hawaii N. P.; Kings Canyon N. P.; Lassen Volcanic N. P.; Mesa Verde N. P.; " Minnesota N. P." ; Mount McKinley N. P.; Olympic N. P.; Mount Rainier N. P.; Muir Woods N. M.; Oregon Caves N. M.; " Palm Canyon N. M." ; Saguaro N. M.; Pinnacles N. M.; Rainbow Bridge N. M.; Rocky Mountain N. P.; " Roosevelt-Sequoia N. P." ; Sequoia N. P.; " Tahoe N.P." ; Zion N.P.

National Parks Association, 11, 103-105

Natural history, see Animals; Birds; Butterflies; Insects; Puffball; Rattlesnake; Trees and shrubs; Trout; wildflowers

Nature-guide service in Yosemite Nat'l Park, see Yosemite Nat'l Park-Nature-guide service

Navajo desert region, 24, 68-73

Navajo Indians, 24, 68-73

NealI Lake, 12, 61

Needle, Third, see Third Needle

Needle borer, 9, 206

Needles, see Shiprock

Nevada Fall, 3, 38; 6, 308; 12, 61; ill., 3, 28, 39; 30, 46-47

Nevada Glacier, 10, 188; ill., 10, 190

Nevado de Toluca (Mexico), 8, 97-101; ill., 8, 97, 100, 101

New Guinea, 28, 58, 68-69

New York Butte, 27, 138

Newcomb, Mt., 26, 118

Niagara Falls, 7, 131-132; 8, 239, 279; 33, 69, 72

Nicaragua, 4, 270

Nichols, Mt. (Canada), ill., 2, 152

Niles Peak (Canada), 8, 189-190; ill., 8, 188

Niles-Daly Glacier (Canada), ill., 8, 188

Nine Lake Basin, 7, 35; ill., 10, 182

Nineveh legend, 18, 97-99

Nisqually Glacier (Mt. Rainier N.P.), 3, 287; motion,, 108-114; chart, 6, 112; recession, 20, 21-22; ill., 6, 2, 108, 110

Nisqually Valley, ill., 9, 82

Nivation, 18, 72; 22, 17; ill., 22, 30-31

Nomenclature, see Place names

Noon Mark, 3, 110

Norden, 20, 2-3; ill., 22, 94-95; 26, 94-95; 27, 30-31; see also Clair Tappaan Memorial Lodge

North Dome, 12, 61; ill., 3, 43; 8, 132

North Fork, see name of river

North Guard, ill., 26, 94-95

1, 296; 5, 1-19; 11, 204-205, 251; 12, 62; 19, 24-27; 24, 42, 51-53; first ascent, 1903, 5, 1-19; 11, 204, 205, 251; 12, 62; 19, 24; 24, 42, 52; North Palisades (cont.) ascents, 9, 180; 11, 204-205, 251, 313; 12, 91; 14, 58-60, 86-87; 16, 105, 107; 17, 124-125; 19, 24-26, 95-96; 23, 33; glacier, see Palisade Glacier; named Mt. Jordan, 1, & 96; Northwest Peak, 24, 53; routes, 11, 204-205; 19, 25; 24, 52-53; traverses, 16, 105; 19, 25, 95; 24, 128; Winter ascent, 1940, 26, 142; ill., 1, 297; 5, 15; 9, 263; 10, 223; 11, 205, 267; 12, 92, 305; 16, 14; 19, 14, 25, 94-95; 21, 3(}-31; 23, 62-63; routes of ascent, ill., 19, 25; see also Palisade Glacier; Palisades; " U" -Notch route

North Peak, ill., 18, 70, 71; 34, 86-87

North Sister (Oregon), 8, 54

North Star Mountain (Washington), ill., 8, 181, 184

North Star Park (Washington), 8, 183; ill., 8, 184

Northeast Gully (Yosemite N. P.), 25, 51

Novitates (Arizona pines), 2, 72 -

Nucifraga, see Clark Crow

Nutcracker, Clark, see Clark Crow

Nuthatch, Red-bellied (Sitta canadensis) 6, 248

Nutmeg, California false (Tumion californicum) 4, 127-128; ill., 4, 123

Nutmeg, Coast (Tumion californicum littoralis), 4, 128

O

Oak, Blue (Quercus douglasii), 3, 304; Brewer's (Quercus breweri), 3, 308; ill., 3, 309; Scrub (Quercus dumosa), 3, 309; see also Live-oak

Obelisk, 33, 120

ObergabeIbom (Switzerland), ill., 6, 78

Observation Peak, ill., 8, 280; 9, 189

Ocala National Forest (Florida), 7, 77

O'Hara, Lake (Canada), ill., 8, 188

Olancha Peak, 26, 120

Old Baldy, see San Antonio, Mt.

Old Faithful geyser (Yellowstone N. P .), ill., 30, 46-47

Olympic National Park (Washington), 21, 22-24; Mountaineers' Outing, 1913, 9, 149-158; ill., 21, 15; see also Elwha Basin; Hoh Glacier; Olympus, Mt.; Queets Basin; Quenault River; Seattle, Mt.

Olympic Range (Olympic National Park), 9, 148-158; map, 9, 148; see also Olympic National ParkOlympus, Mt. (Greece), 9, 313-315; 30, 71-77; bibliography, 9, 315; ill., 9, 309

Olympus, Mt. (Olympic N. P.), 9, 152-153; ill., 9, 152, 153, 156; see also Olympic N. P.

Olympus, Mt. (Rocky Mountain N. P.), ill., 7, 234

" One Hundred Peaks" goal, 31, 115-117

Onion Valley, ill., 7, 240

Oregon, 20, 109; see also Crater Lake; Eliot Glacier; Hood, Mt.; Hunt's Cove; Jefferson, Mt.; North Sister; ThieIsen, Mt.; Three Fingered Jack; Three Sisters; Washington, Mt.

Oregon Caves National Monument, 9, 58-59, 115

Oregonia, 18, 51-52

Organizations and clubs, see Mountaineering and conservation organizations

Orientation, 32, 12-13

Orizaba, see Pico de Orizaba

Osprey, 14, 36

Otter, Sea, 33, 13

Ottoway Peak, 12, 61

Outpost, 22, 57

Ouzel, Water, see Water Ouzel

Ouzel Basin, 3, 109-111; 12, 62; map, 3, 109

Ouzel Camp, 3, 110

Ouzel Creek, 3, 109; 12, 62

Ouzel Pool, 3, 110

Overgrazing danger, 32, 36-42; see also

Grazing and pasturage

Ovis canadensis, see Bighorn Sheep

Owen, Mt. (Grand Teton N. P.), 32, 129

Owens Lake, 12, 62; 17, 72

Owens River, 12, 62

Owens Valley, 12, 62; Sierra Nevada ascent routes, 13, 31-35; skiing, 19, 47; ill., 7, 31

Oxycedrus, see Juniper, Prickly

P

Pacific Glacier (Alaska), ill., 10, 17

Pacific slope conifers, see Conifers of the Pacific Slope

Pack animals, 2, 36-43, 287-289; 17, 89-93; 21, 40-44; Harrison Pass crossing, S, 115-121, 297-302; see also Diamond hitch; Packers and packing

Pack trips, see Packers and packing

Packers and packing, 2, 36-43, 287-289; 16, 9; 24, 25-28; 25, 14-15, 21-25; 34, 22-26; commissary list, 24, 27; meadow conservation, 34, 140-143; saddling and loading, 21, 40-44; wilderness policy, 32, 96-98; ill., 11, 439; 24, 30-31; 26, 94-95; see also Bivouacking; Camping; Diamond hitch; Sierra Club-Annual outings.

Packsack, 22, 38-39

Paiju Peak (Himalayas), ill., 31, 14-15

Painted Lady, see Colored Lady

Pait Valley, see Pate Valley

Palisade, Middle, see Middle Palisade

Palisade, North; Northeast, see North

Palisade

Palisade, South; Southeast, see Split Mountain

Palisade Creek Canyon, 5, 9; 11, 357; ill., 9, 189; 11, 197, 358, 359, 363; 19, 14-I5, 46-47, 94-95; 25, 14-15

Palisade Crest, 24, 55; ill., 19, 95

Palisade Glacier, 5, 12, 13; 9, 261-263; 14, 58-60; 17, 124; 19, 25; ill., 5, 15; 9, 54, 262, 263

Palisade Lakes, lower lake, ill., 11, 363; upper lake, ill., 11, 358

Palisades, 1, 296; 5, 1-19; 12, 62; 16, 107; 17, 124-125; 19, 24, 95-96; 23, 33-35, 104; 24, 40-58; bibliography 24, 44-45; Climber's Guide, 24, 40-58; history,, 2-3; 11, 251-252; 12, 62; 19, 24; 24, 42; map, 5, 18; 11, 359; 24, 46; origin of name, 5, 3-4; 11, 251; 12, 62; 19, 24; Owens Valley ascent routes, 13, 33-34; passes, 24, 45, 49; ill., 1, 297; 4, 177; 5, 2, 5, II; 9, 188; 10, 223; 11, 173; 19, 95; 21, 30-31; 23, 62-63; see also Middle Palisade; North Palisade; Palisade Glacier; Sill, Mt.; Split Mountain

Palm, Washington (Washingtonia filifera) 11, 218, 325-326, 351, 352; ill. 11, 350

Palm, Wax, 22, 86-91; ill., 22, 94-95

" Palm Canyon National Monument " proposed, 11, 325-326; ill., 11, 350

Palm Springs, 11, 218, 325-326; ill., 11, 350

Palmer Mountain, 12, 62

Pam, Mt. (Canada), 10, 272-273; ill., 10, 276, 277

Panama Canal, 4, 271

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 9, 178, 288

Panamint Lake, 171 72-73

Panamint Range, 271 83; ill., 24, 62-63

Panamint Valley, 24, 87, 90, 104

Panorama Cliff, 22, 108; 23, 117; 25, 57

Papago Saguaro National Monument, see Saguaro National Monument

Papilio indra, 9, 90-91; 18, 51

Paradise Glacier (Mt. Rainier N. P .), ill., 1, 113

Paradise Park (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 11, 96

Paradise River (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 1, 113

Paradise Valley (Kings River), 1, 242-243; 3, 152; 4, 178-179; 6, 102-103, 117-118, 123; 7, 181-182; trail, 7, 190-191; ill., 2, 90; 6, 118; 7, 182; 8, 16, 48-49; 26, 14-15, 94-95

Paradise Valley (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 9, 82, 83

Paragon Peak, 13, 6; ill., 13, 9, 12

Paricutin (Mexico), 29, 67-76; ill., 29, 46-47

Parker Pass (Mt. McKinley N. P.), ill., 28, 30-31

Parnassius, 9, 93-94; 18, 49; ill., 9, 94

Parnassus, Mt. (Greece), 9, 278-283; ill., 9, 280-283

Parsons Memorial Fund, 9, 223-224

Parsons Memorial Lodge, 9, 223, 287; 10, 144, 359; 23, 96-97; reports, 10, 84-85, 436; 11, 202; 21, 80; ill., 9, 224; 10, 80, 81, 88, 143; 11, 411

Parsons Peak, 12, 63

Partridge, Plumed, see Quail, Mountain

Parviconae pines, 2, 69-70

Passes, 271 59-64; see also Place names; Climbers Guide to the High Sierra

Pasturage, see Grazing and pasturage

Pate Valley, 1, 207; 2, 181-182; Indian pictographs and relics, 6, 241-242, 258-259; 271 125; rattlesnakes, 2, 182; ill., 6, 242, 258, 259; 9, 261; 12, 24, 25

Patented lands, see National Parks and Monuments-Patented lands; Yosemite N. P .-Patented lands

Patriarchs (Zion National Park), ill., 10, 340

Pavilion Dome, 12, 63

Peaks, elevations of, see Elevations of Mountain Peaks

Pear Lake ski slopes, ill., 271 30-31; 33, 102-103

Peary Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 104

Peeler Lake, 12, 126

Peltiphyllum, see Umbrella plant

Pendente spruces, 2, 157-162

Peninsula Meadow, see Cascade Valley

Penthestes, see Chickadee

Perfection Meadow, ill., 11, 136

Perkins, Mt., 12, 63; ill., 11, 422

Persistentes, 2, 64

Peter, Lake, 12, 63

Peter Grubb Hut, ill., 27, 30-31

Peter Peak, 27, 102

Pewee, Western wood (Myiochanes richardsonii), 8, 264-265; ill., 8, 265

Phacelia, 26, 67, 69

Phelan Bill, 11, 6; 26, 47-49

Philippines, 4, 172; 5, 26-32; 14, 37-38

Phlox, Alpine (Phlox douglasii), 11, 149; ill., 12, 348

Photography, 11, 408; 25, 30; 26, 82-89; 29, 41-46; 31, 15-17; birds, 5, 103; 8, 158; comparison photography, 29, 95-96; composition, 26, 88-89; development, 26, 87; equipment and technique, 8, 158; 10, 409-413; 20, 55; 26, 83-89; 29, 42, -43, 44; film material, 26, 84; filters, 26, 85; glaciers, 5, 23-25; interpreting the natural scene, 30, 47-50; lenses, 26, 85; lighting and exposure, 26, 86; sunshades, 26, 85; see also, in Index of Names: Ansel Adams, Joseph N. LeConte, Vittorio Sella, Cedric Wright

Picacho (California), 19, 101-102

Picacho del Diablo (Mexico), 18, 56-62; ill., 18, 58, 59, 62

Picea, see Spruce

Pickering, Mt., 26, 118

Picket Guard, 2, 189; 12, 63; 22, 105; ill., 4, 304

Picket Range (Washington), 22, 78

Pico de Orizaba (Mexico), 8, 106-109; 9, 109; ill., 8, 108

Pictographs, see Indian pictographs

Pigeon Spire (Canada), 26, 63; ill., 24, 62-63

Pika, see Cony

Pike's Peak (Colorado), 3, 190

Pilot Knob, 19, 92

Pinaster pines, 2, 65, 66-75

Pinatubo, Mt. (Philippines), 5, 26-32

Pinchot, Mt., 4, 262, 288; 12, 63; ill., 11, 422

Pinchot Pass, map, 17, 106; ill., 11, 422, 423; 32, 30; 34, 14-15

Pines: 2, 64-75; Balfour (Pinus balfouriana), 4, 214, 299, 303; 27, 24; Big-cone, see Coulter Pine; Bishop (P. muricata), 18, 65-66; 31, 20; Black, see Jeffrey Pine; Foxtail (P. aristata; P. Balfouriana), 4, 208, 214, 219, 303; 27, 24; ill., 4, 214; 9, 74; 10, 158, 167; 22, 62; Heavy-coned, see Graviconae; Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi), 27, 24; Lodge-pole (P. murrayana, 4, 208-209, 299; 9, 206; 12, 136-137; 27, 24; destruction by pests, 9, 206; ill., 4, 209; 10, 328; 11, 53; 16, 18); Lone, see Torrey Pine; Monterey (P. radiata), 18, 65; Nevada nut, see Pinon Pine; Pinon (P. monophylla), 4, 298-299; 11, 150; Prickle-cone, see Bishop Pine; Rocky Mountain white (P. ftexilis), 4, 299; Single-leaf, see Pinon Pine; Sugar (P . lambertiana), 13, 13; Swamp, see Bishop Pine; Tamarack, Tamrac, see Lodgepole Pine; Torrey (P. torreyana), 18, 66; Western yellow (P. ponderosa), 11, 52; White-bark (P. albicaulis), 4, 299; 27, 24; ill., 10, 159; 34, 1; see also Conifers

Pine Ridge trail, 1, 209-213; map, 1, 210

Pinicola, see Grosbeak, California pine

Pinnacle Pass, 26, 106

Pinnacle Pass Needle, 22, 109; 26, 115 Pinnacle Ridge, 26, 114; Pinnacles, 19, 93; 25, 120; see also Pinnacles National Monument

Pinnacles National Monument, 5, 85; 11, 325; 19, 93; first ascent of the " Hand, " 33, 123-124; first ascent of the " Machete, " 25, 13{}-131; ill., 25, 102-103

Piranga, see Tanager

Piscator Peak, 11, 46

Pitons, 19, 34; 27, 73-74; 31, 86-90; ill., 33, 102-103; see also Climbing and mountaineering

Pitt River Canyon, ill., 2, 318

Piute Branch, see Piute Creek (San Joaquin)

Piute Creek (San Joaquin), 5, 154-155, 255; 11, 278; 12, 63; ill., 10, 89

Piute Creek (Yosemite N. P.), ill., 20, 62-63

Piute Indians, 12, 63

Piute Mountain, 12, 63

Piute Pass, 11, 277; 27, 89

Pivot Crag, see Fin Dome

Place names, 2, 53-55; 3, 109-111; 4, 239-241; 5, 139-140, 254-255, 260; 6, 52, 87-99, 201-203; 9, 55; 11, 27; 27, 104; of High Sierra region; Names A-J, 11, 380-407; K-Q. 12, 47-64; R-Z, 12, 126-147; of Southern Sierra peaks, 11, 244-254; see also Indian names; Rainier, Mt.-Tacoma-Rainier controversy; Sierra Nevada-Nomenclature

Plains-Trees and shrubs, 3, 301-302

Planesticus, see Robin

Plants, Galapagos Archipelago, 27, 81-82; Sierra Nevada-east side, 33, 42-45; reappearance on burned areas, 31, 18-23; see also Trees and shrubs; Wild flowers

Plum, Wild (Prunus subcordata), 3, 309

Pohono trail, 12, 64; 25, 112

Point Lobos Reserve State Park, 18, 110, 120-121; Cypresses, 18, 64-67; poem, 18, 63; ill., 18, 63, 66, 67

Poison meadows, 4, 195, 213

Poison-ivy and Poison-oak, 12, 173-174

Polemonium, ill., 17, 14; 26, 14-15

Polemonium Club, 27, 9

Pollux Peak (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 276

Pongo de Manseriche (Brazil), 18, 94; ill., 18, 94

Pope's Peak (Canada), 8, i90-191; ill., 8, 189

Popocatepetl (Mexico), first ascent, 1519, 25, 88; early ascent by Spanish .conquistadores, 11, 316; 25, 88-95; ascents, 2, 10; 8, 101-104; 17, 77-81; 28, 71-75; ill., 8, 96, 104, 105

Poppy, Bush (Dendromecon rigida), 3, 309

Porcupine, Sierra Nevada, 15, 57-58; Yellowstone, 12, 343; ill., 10, 296; 12, 337

Porcupine Flat, ill., 8, 40

Pothole Lake, ill., 10, 191

Powell, Mt., 12, 64; 27, 88, 96; first ascent, 1925, 12, 222, 250-251; 27, 96; ill., 11, 275; 12, 248

Prattville, 3, 289

Predatory animals, 33, 13-17

Preuss map of California, ill., 15, 91

Primitive areas, see Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation

Primrose, Sierra (Primula suffrutescens), 6, 165; 11, 149; 21, 89-90

Primrose Pond, 3, 110

Primula, see Primrose

Projectile, Mt. (Canada), 33, 4-5, 124

Providence Spring, 24, 94

Prunus, see Plum

Pseudotsuga, see Spruce, Douglas ; Spruce, Big-cone

Ptarmigan, 4, 144; 6, 38; ill., 12, 119

Public lands, 3, 112; 4, 246-249; frauds, 5, 269; laws, 4, 322; 5, 82-83

Public service, 12, 78

Puffball, Sierra, 6, 39-42; 14, 61-63; 21, 90; ill., 6, 39; 14, 62, 63; see also Calbovista; Calvatia; Lycoperdon

Pulpit Rock, 23, 119; 26, 140; 31, 119; first ascent, 1939, 25, 62, 119

Pumice, 15, 4

Purcell Range, see Bugaboo Range

Purple Lake, ill., 33, 30-31

Pyramid Peak, 2, 120

Pyweack Fall, 25, 49-50

Q

Quail, Mountain (Oreortyx picta), 17, 21; 27, 15

Quarry Peak, 27, 127

Quarter Domes, 25, 47-48

Queets Basin (Olympic N. P.), 9, 152-153

Quenault River (Olympic N.P.), 9, 154-157; ill., 9, 157

Quinn Horse Camp, 12, 64

R

Rabbit, Snowshoe, 12, 343

Rae Lakes, 7, 182-183; 8, 16-17; 12, 127; map, 3, 136; ill., 6, 102; 7, 183; 8, 10, 16-17, 49, 64, 65, 71; 9, 160, 161; 10, 431; 21, 31; 26, 14-15

Rafferty Creek, 12, 127; ill., 6, 225

Rafferty Peak, 12, 127

Ragged Peak, 30, 94; ill., 10, 289; 17, 15

Rainbow Bridge National Monument (Arizona), 7, 249; 24, 68; 30, 69

Rainbow Falls (Devils Postpile N. M.), 8, 52, 172; 11, 46; ill., 8, 171; 29, 46-47

Rainier, Mt., 1, 109-132; 16, 63-66; ascents, 1, 109-132; 2, 192-193, 227-237; 3, 271-287; 6, 1-6; 9, 310; Camp Muir Shelter Hut, 10, 233; Crater Peak, 1, 124; elevation, 6, 10, 13; 9, 97-98, 189-191; glaciers, 6, 108-114; meteorological observatory, 6, 7-14; naming, 1, 109-110; 6, 12-13, 87-99; Rainier, Mt. (cont.) 9, 95-98; North Peak first ascent, 1, 124; Success Peak, 1, 124; Tacoma-Rainier name controversy, 1, 109-110; 6, 12-13, 87-99; 9, 95-98; Winter, 11, 94-95; ill., 1, 109, 113, 115, 116, 125; 3, 271, 277, 284; 6, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 21, 108, 110; 7, 170; 9, 82, 83, 95, 98, 285; 11, 9, 96, 97; 16, 62, 63, 66, 67; 28, 78-79; see also Cowlitz Glacier; Gibraltar Rock; Indian Henry's; Klapatchie Park; Liberty Cap; Mount Rainier National Park; Nisqually Glacier; Spray Park; Van Trump Park

Ralston, Mt., ill., 10, 304; 33, 102-103

Rambaud Creek, ill., 11, 180, 197

Rambaud Peak, 12, 127; 19, 95; 27, 106

Ramparts (Canada), 13, 4-9; 14, 3, 22-24; ill., 13, 5, 8; 14, 6, 23, 30, 31, 70, 71, 78

Rancheria Canyon, ill., 3, 161

Rancheria Mountain, 8, 156; 9, 255-256; ill., 27, 78-79

Rappel, 16, 86-88; 25, 96-101; bibliography, 25, 100-101; ill., 16, 87; 25, 102-103; see also Rope technique

Rat, Wood or Trade, 12, 342, 343

Rattlesnake, 2, 182; 12, 9; 18, 38-46; first-aid for rattlesnake bite, 12, 171-172; 18, 44-46

Rattlesnake Creek (Trinity Alps), 21, 15

Rearguard (Canada), ill., 14, 94

Recess Peak, 12, 127; see also Hilgard

Records, see Sierra Club-Registers

Recreational values in the Sierra Nevada, 23, 85-96; see also, Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation

Red Kaweah, 9, 48; 12, 49; ill., 13, 24; see also Kaweah peaks

Red Mountain, 1, 309; see also Pinchot, Mt.

Red Mountain (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 269

Red Pass, 1, 304

Red Peak (Yosemite N. P.), 8, 25-33; 15, 110; ill., 20, 62-63

Red Slate Mountain, 2, 251-252; 11, 248; 12, 128; ill., 4, 200

Red snow, 5, 174; 6, 167

Red Spur, 2, 189; ill., 4, 302, 304, 306

Red-and-White Mountain, 4, 193-206; 12, 127; 16, 103; ill., 2, 252; 4, 197, 200

Red-berry, see Toyon

Redbud (Cercis occidentalis), 3, 306

Redoubt Peak (Canada), ill., 13, 5; 14, 71

Reds Meadow, 8, 172; 12, 128

Redwood, Coast, see Sequoia sempervirens

Redwood, Dawn, see Metasequoia

Redwood Highway, 16, 28, 31; " Avenue of the Giants, " 25, 106

Redwood Meadow (Sequoia N. P.), ill., 13, 16

Redwood Mountain Big Trees, 25, 107-108

Redwood Reservation Act, 3, 338-339

Redwoods League, see Save-the-Redwoods League

Reflection Crag, 3, 109

Reflection Lake, 1, 192; 4, 281; 12, 128; ill., 8, 14, 15; 30, 62-63

Reforestation, 6, 72; Shasta National Forest, 7, 206-207; Sierra Nevada, 3, 224-229; Tahoe National Forest, 8, 291; see also Forestry; Sequoia gigantea

Registers, see Sierra Club-Registers

Regulation Peak, 12, 128; 17, 4-5; ill., 7, 151; 9, 257; 11, 255

Regulus, see Kinglet

Reinstein, Mt., 12, 128

Relief Creek, ill., 2, 280

Resplendent, Mt. (Canada), 14, 7-9; ill., 10, 277; 14, 11, 35, 42, 79

Return Canyon and Creek, 1, 170-171; 10, 288

Reversed Creek, 12, 128

Rhoda Lake, see Charlotte Lake

Ribbon Fall, 12, 128

Ribes velutinum, 3, 304

Ringtail, 17, 18

Ritter, Mt., 11, 188, 248; 12, 129; 23, 24-27; first ascent, 11, 248; 12, 129; 23, 24; ascents, 1, 67-68; 5, 186-193; 6, 290-306; 11, 259, 313; 12, 91; 17, 115; 27, 137; early ascents, 1, 9, 10, 67, 68; 5, 193; origin of name, 11, 248; 12, 129; triangulation map, 2, 286; ill., 1, 66, 74, 78; 5, 184; 6, 290, 296, 304; 7, 6; 10, 447; 15, 1, 31, 34, 38, 39, 46, 47, 50; 17, 27; 23, 1, 14, 25, 30-31; 24, 30-31; see also Ritter Range

Ritter Lakes, ill., 23, 30-31

Ritter Pass, 23, 23

Ritter Pinnacles, 23, 27

Ritter Range, 8, 170-171; 15, 2; Banner-Ritter saddle, 23, 22; bibliography, 23, 22; Climber's Guide, 23, 30-32; map, 23, 30; passes, 23, 22-24; ill., 6, 290, 296, 304; 15, 31; 23, 30-31

River of No Return, see Salmon River (Idaho)

Rixford. Mt., 3, 149, 155, 158, 169; 7, 186; 12, 129; 18, 126; ill., 3, 145; 6, 102; 7, 183; 8, 16-17, 65, 71; 9, 160, 161; 10, 431; 26, 14-15

Rixon's Pinnacle (Yosemite Valley), 34, 148-149

Roads in national parks, high versus low standards, 34, 31-54; ill., 34, 34-35; see also Big Oak Flat Road; Kings Canyon Road; Tioga Road

Roaring River, 1, 189-190; 7, 71-73; 11, 314-315; map, 11, 128; ill., 1, 189; 6, 156; 8, 163, 167; 10, 183

Roaring River basin, 3, 167; 6, 119; map, 11, 128

Roaring River Falls, ill., 29, 46-47

Roaring River Gorge, 11, 314-315

Robin, Western (Planesticus migratorius propinquus), 6, 245; 8, 118-119

Robson, Mt. (Canada), 10, 269-275; 13, 1-3; first ascent, 1913, 10, 270; 13, 2; 14, 14; ascents, 10, 270; 14, 13-19, 32-33; bibliography, 13, 3, 9; origin of name, 14, 32; ill., 10, 269, 272, 273, 277; 13, 4; 14, I, 14, 15, 18, 19, 26, 27, 35, 38, 39, 86, 94

Robson Cirque, ill., 14, 35

Robson Glacier, ill., 14, 27, 38, 39

Rock climbing, see Climbing and mountaineering

Rock Creek, 1, 178; 12, 129; ill., 32, 30-31

Rock Island Lake, 1, 178; 12, 129; ill., 11, 254

Rock-rabbit, see Cony

Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado), 3, 189-199; 7, 234-236; 9, 113; 10, 100, 101-102, 250, 365, 477; ill., 9, 81, 113; see also Bear Lake; Big Thompson River; Fern Lake; Glacier Gorge; Hallett Glacier; Longs Peak; Moraine Park; Olympus, Mt.; Willow Park

Rocky Mountains, 3, 189-199; see also Rocky Mountain N. P.

Rocky Point, 25, 112

Rodgers Lake, 12, 129; 17, 4; ill., 7, 151; 8, 153; 9, 257; 11, 255

Rodgers Peak, 12, 129; 20, 110-111; ill., 11, 10; 17, 23, 26; 20, 31

Roosevelt National Park, see Kings Canyon National Park

" Roosevelt-Sequoia National Park" proposed, 10, 431-433; 11, 6, 29-33, 40-41, 2)6, 301-302, 306, 323-324, 428-429, 442; 12, 186, 298; 26, 42-58; water-power sites, 11, 441-446; see also Kings Canyon N. P .-water-power sites

Rope, Climbing, 31, 77-85

Rope technique in climbing, 7, 175-176; 16, 67-88; 19, 28-30; 25, 44, 77, 79, 81, 96-101; 27, 69-72; belaying the leader, 31, 68-100; see also Belaying; Rappel Roping down, see Rappel

Rose, Mt., 4, 224-226; 8, 250-259; meteorological observatory, 6, 177-185; ill., 4, 224; 6, 177, 180, 182, 184; 8, 250, 251

Rose Lake, 12, 130

Rostrum, 27, 134

Rosy Finch, see Finch, Rosy

Rothorn (Switzerland), ill., 6, 78

Rowell Meadow, 6, 154; 12, 130

Royal Arches, 12, 130; 21, 97-98; 22, 108; 23, 117; 25, 60; ill., 3, 43; 8, 132

Royce Peak, 17, 123-124

Rubicon Springs, 1, 318; 2, 56

Rundle, Mt., ill., 28, 78-79

Rush Creek, 1, 65; ill., 9, 253

Ruskin, Mt., 12, 130

Russell, Mt., 12, 130; 26, 110-111; first ascent, 1926, 12, 382-384; 26, 110; ascents, 13, 86; 14, 86; 17, 121; 18, 128; 21, 100; ill., 12, 384; 13, 88, 89; 22, 14-15

Rutherford Lake, 12, 130

Ruwenzori Range (Africa), 6, 207; ill., 31, 14-15

Ryekrisp, 7, 196

S

Sabrina, Lake, 12, 130

Sacramento River, 1, 54-59

Saddle trips, see Sierra Club-Saddle Trip

Saddlebag Lake, 3, 323; ill., 3, 323; 11, 250

Saddlehorn, 25, 121

Sadler Lake and Peak, 12, 130

Sadlier, see Sadler

Safety in climbing, 21, 94; 27, 65-78; see also Climbing and mountaineering-Accidents and fatalities

Saguaro cactus, ill., 30, 46-47

Saguaro National Monument (Arizona), 9, 317; Saguaro cactus, ill., 30, 46-47; see also Papago Saguaro Nat'l Monument

St. Elias, Mt., first ascent (1897), 2, 129-148; second ascent, 32, 63-70; map, 2, 136; ill., 2, 144; 32, 62-63, 70

St. Elmo lights, 17, 107

St. Helens, Mt. (Oregon), 7, 170-179; first ascent, 1853, 19, 58; ill., 7, 170

St. Mary Lake (Glacier N.P.), ill., 7, 227; 12, 1, 44

Salix, see Willow

Salmon Alps, 11, 368--373; ill., 11, 366, 367, 370, 371, 374, 375; see also Trinity Alps

Salmon River (Idaho), 26, 78--81

Salmon-Trinity Alps, see Salmon Alps; Trinity Alps

Salmon-Trinity Alps Primitive Area, 18, 29

Salt and alkaline lakes, 3, 71-74

Salvador, 4, 269

San Antonio, Mt., 5, 122-132; 11, 49-51; 12, 313-314; 25, 69-70; Bighorn sheep, 23, 98; ski lodge, 21, 83-84; skiing, 19, 43; ill., 5, 122; 11, 52; 12, 191

San Bernardino Mountains, 12; 314-316; 25, 70-71; 31, 116-117; ill., 11, 52

San Bernardino Peak, 16, 106

San Diego Mountains, 31, 117

San Felipe Desert (Mexico), ill., 18, 58

San Francisco Bay region map, 13, 56

San Francisco Peaks (Arizona), 5, 108--114; ill., 5, 108

San Gabriel Range, 11, 50; 25, 70; 31, 116; ill., 11, 52-53

San Gorgonia, Mt., 11, 52-54; 16, 107; 17, 106; 25, 70; Winter, 17, 121-123; 19, 45-47; 20, 112; ill., 11, 53; 19, 47

San Gorgonio Pass, 11, 348-349

San Jacinto, Mt., 11, 54-55, 348-356; 19, 47; 25, 71; ascents, 10, 332-334; 18, 134-135; effort to save, 12, 313-315; game refuge, 12, 190; 13, 74; ill., 10, 332; 11, 351

San Jacinto Range, 31, 117

San Joaquin Company, 24, 76, 100

San Joaquin Dome, 10, 71

San Joaquin Mountain, ill., 15, 51

San Joaquin River, 12, 131; Middle Fork, 8, 170; ill., 15, 51; North Fork, 1, 61-84; ill., 9, 253; South Fork, 1, 225; 2, 249-262; 10, 292-297; map, 5, 229; ill., 10, 344; 11, 136

San Joaquin Valley map, 26, 30

San J uan River (Utah), 24, 69; 30, 63-67; ill., 30, 62-63

San Marcos Pass (Guatemala), 4, 267-268

San Marcos Range, 13, 56; see also Sierra Nevada

San Pedro Martir, see Sierra San Pedro Martir

Sandpiper, Spotted (Actitis macularius), 6, 247

Santa Ana Mountains, 31, 117

Santa Barbara Range, 31, 115-116

Santa Cruz Mountains, 4, 276; fire of 1904, 5, 265-266

Santa Rosa Mountains, 31, 117

Santa Rosita, ill., 28, 78-79

Saranbid, Mt. (Ceylon), 19, 91

Sarcodes, see Snow-plant

Sardine Lake, 12, 131

"Sarvis" bush, see Service bush

Sastise Mountain, see Shasta, Mt.

Saurian Crest, 12, 131; 27, It6; ill., 8, 157; 27, 78, 79

Save-the-Redwoods League, 11, I, 87, 302, 327; 12, 308-309, 421-422; 25, 106-107

Sawblade, 22, 56

Sawmill Pass, 11, 421

Sawtooth Mountain (Trinity Alps), 21, 94-95; ill., 21, 14-15

Saw-Tooth Mountains, see Palisades

Sawtooth Peak, 4, 302; 12, 131; ill., 7, 101, 103; 9, 20; 10, 171; 11, 410--411; 13, 21

Sawtooth Ridge (Yosemite N.P.)>, 19, 31-33; 20, 39, 46-49; ascents, 3, 159-163; 17, 6, 113-114; 18, 134; 19, 31-98; 20, 46-49, 76, 105-106; 31, 117-118; Climber's Guide, 22, 50-57; ill., 3, 119; 19, 46-47; 20, 110-111; 22, 52; see also Matterhorn Peak; Three Teeth Scaffold Meadow, 6, 156

Scarper Peak, 4, 243-Z45 S

Scenery, 7, 64-69, 199-201; 29, 61-66; 30, 47-50; 33, 48-59

Schofield Peak, 12, 131

Scimitar Glacier (Canada), ill., 33, 6-7

Scottish Mountaineering Club, 1, 339; 6, 131

Scylla, 12, 131; 27, 88, 103, 104; ill., 12, 12, 17

Sea lion, California, 33, 13

Searles Lake, 17, 72; 24, 93

Seattle ; Mt. (Olympic N. P.), ill., 9, 151

Seattle Mountaineers, see Mountaineers Club of Seattle

Seavey Pass, 12, 131; ill., 12, 57

Sebrina, Lake, see Sabrina, Lake

Secretary of the Interior, reports, 8, 58-63; 9, 66-67; 10, 101-108

Selden Pass, 11, 41-42; 12, 131; 24, 23; ill., 11, 40; 24, 30-31

Seldon Pass, see Selden Pass

Selkirks (Canada), 8, 51; 9, 240-246; ill., 9, 240, 241, 244-246; 23, 110-111; see also Bruce, Mt.; Hermit Group; J umbo; Maye, Lake; Sir Donald, Mt.; Starbird Glacier

Senger, Mt., 12, 132; 16, 103

Sentinel, Mt. (Washington), 22, 77

Sentinel Dome, 3, 27-28; 12, 132

Sentinel Rock, 12, 132; 22, 107; 25, 51-52; 26, 136; 31, 119; 34, 147-148; ill., 3, 35; 11, 410; 29, 1

Sequoia, 2, 170; nomenclature, 18, 116-118; see also Metasequoia; Sequoia gigantea; Sequoia sempervirens

Sequoia gigantea (Big Tree), 2, 171-172; 4, 293, 295-296; 26, 3; avalanche in a Sequoia N. P. grove, 18, 118-120; conservation, 11, 1-4; discovery, 1833, 27, 46; McKinley Grove, 10, 296; nomenclature, 18, 116-118; Placer County grove, 1, 17-22; seedlings, 8, 291; Yosemite Valley planting, 1913, 9, 201-203; ill., 2, 170; 9, 110-111; 11, 414; 12, 213, 236, 308, 400, 401; 13, 16; see also Calaveras Big Tree grove; Giant Forest; McKinley grove.

Sequoia Lake, 26, 10

Sequoia National Forest, 12, 132

Sequoia National Park, 3, 264, 265; 8, 57-58, 220; 9, 319; 10, 98, 249, 368, 477; 11, 10, 217, 323-324; animals, 8, 57; avalanche, 18, 118-120; Barbour Bill, 11, 433, 441-443; 12, 409; 26, 49-51; Elston Bill, 26, 47-49; enlargement, 8, 58, 207, 220-221, 280-281; 10, 249, 352-356, 360, 431-433; 11, 6-7, 10, 216-217, 323-324; 12, 76-77, 331-332, 408-.409; 26, 53; map, 8, 220; 12, 216; established, 1890, 16, 21; 17, 51-52; 26, 43; fishing, 8, 57; Flint Bill, 12, 132; 26, 46; Giant Forest, ill., 12, 213; improvements proposed, 8, 225; legislative history, 11, 216; 12, 132; 26, 42-58; origin of name, 12, 132; Phelan Bill, 26, 47-49; trails and roads, 9, 319; 16, 97; 25, 109-110; Vandever Bill, 16, 21; 26, 43; see also General Grant N. P.; Kings Canyon N. P.; "Roosevelt-Sequoia N. P."

Sequoia sempervirens (Coast Redwood), 2, 170-171, 244-245; 11, 1-4, 328-329; 12, 45, 99-100; forestry, 11, 328-329, 451; 12, 99-100; Monterey County, 12, 190-191; Schwarz gift, 1924, 12, 198-199; ill., 3, 200, 202; 6, 285-287; 11, I, 4, 5, 8, 303, 311; 16, 34, 35; 25, 102-103; see also Dyerville-Bull Creek Redwoods; Muir Woods National Monument; Save-the-Redwoods League; see also California State Parks for list of Redwoods State Parks

Sequoia Waskingtoniana, see Sequoia gigantea

Serac, ill., 14, 39; see also Glaciers and glaciation

Serra, Mt. (Canada), 33, 9, 126-127

Serpentine Glacier (Alaska), ill., 10, 394

Service bush, 6, 161

Seven Gables, 11, 205-206; 12, 132; first ascent and naming, 1894, 1, 230; 11, 205-206; 12, 132; ascents, 2, 253; 10, 293; 11, 206; ill., 10, 104; 12, 181; 15, 22; 24, 31

Sewellel, see Beaver, Mountain

Shadow Creek, ill., 23, 31; 24, 30-31

Shadow Lake, ill., 10, 447; 15, 31, 34, 51; 24, 30-31

Shadow Lake trail, ill., 15, 35

Shand, Mt. (Canada), 33, 125

Sharktooth Peak, 12, 132

Shasta, Mt., 2, 205-215, 242; 12, 193, :, 252-267; first ascent, 1854, 12, 254; I, 19, 58; ascent by John Muir, 27, 130; r ascents, 12, 254; 18, 128-130; 19, 58-70; 20, 111; 27, 23-29; bibliography, 27, 29-30; botanical ascents, 27, 23-29; elevation, 6, 11; 9, 190; 12, 258-259; 19.68; geology, 12, 261; history, 12, 252-262; 19, 58-70; 27, 23-29; meteorological observatory, 6, 7-14; mountaineering, 12, 259; names, 12, 253; natural history, 12, 263-267; poem, 11, 13; record ascents, 12, 260; 27, 130-131; routes, 2, 240-243; shelter lodge, see Shasta Alpine Lodge; summit monument, 12, 257; timberline traverse, 14, 91-96; Winter ascent, 18, 128-130; ill., 2, 205, 211; 12, 252, 253, 260; 17, 50, 51

Shasta Alpine Lodge, 11, 433, 438-440; 12, 83-85, 187-188, 414-415; 13, 71-72; 14, 76-77; 15, 104-105; 16, 95-96; 17, 100-101; 18, 106-107; 19, 78-79; 20, 100; 21, 81; ill., 11, 438

Shasta Butte, see Shasta, Mt.

Shasta National Forest, 7, 206-207

Shaste, see Shasta

Shastl, see Shasta

Sheep, Mountain, see Bighorn sheep

Sheep grazing and sheep herders, see Grazing and pasturage

Sheep Mountain, 25, 125; see also Langley, Mt.

Shepard, see Shepherd

Shepherd Creek, 12, 133; ill., 10, 159, 199

Shepherd Crest, ill., 10, 288; " Little Lost Valley, " 18, 68-80; 34, 85-86; ascents, 19, 99; 22, 111; map, 18, 69; 34, 84; ill., 18, 70, 71; 34, 86

Shepherd Pass, 12, 133

Sherbrooke Lake (Canada), 8, 185-192; ill., 8, 189

Sheridan, Mt. (Yellowstone N.P.), ill., 12, 269, 372

Shiprock, (New Mexico), 23, 114-115; first ascent, 1939, 25, 1-7; ill., 25, 1, 14-15

Shoes, see Camping: Boots

Shorty's Well, 24, 83, 103

Shoshone Lake (Yellowstone N. P .), 12, 271

Shrew, 12, 344

Shrubs, see Trees and shrubs

Shuksan, Mt. (Washington), ill., 28, 78

Sialia, see Bluebird

Sierra Blanca, see White Mountain (New Mexico)

Sierra Club: 10, 135-145; 20, 95-96; 22, 96-97; achievements, activities, 5, 71-73; 8, 150; 10, 142-145, 211-212; 20, 95-96; 22, 96; archives, 15, 97-98; base camps: 1940, 26, 133-135; 1941, 27, 136-137; 1946, 32, 130-132; Bulletin, 10, 152-154; 11, 428; 13, 67; 21, 79; 28, 109; burro trips: 1938, 24, 31-39; 1939, 25, 122; 1940, 26, 131-133; by-laws, 6, 143-151; desert peaks section, 27, 137-138; local walks, 10, 335; charter members, 6, 152; conservation work, 14, 82-83; cups, 25, 64-67; directors and officers, 1892-1935, 21, 77-79; 1892-1943, 28, 105-108; 1892-1945, 30, 106-108; fish transplanting, see Trout planting; founding, 1892, 10, 139; 27, 28; 32, 108; " fourteen-thousand-foot" climb certificates, 21, 103-104; gifts and bequests, 10, 153; 11, 196; history, 10, 135-145, 211-212. 16, 1-15; " Hundred Peaks" goal, 34 115-117; knapsack trips, 1939, 25, 123-125; 1941, 27, 128-130; 1946, 32, 99-103; local walks, 5, 136; 10, 144; ill., 5, 136; meadow use, 33, 29-30; 34, 140-143; membership, 9, 289; 10, 323; 11, 87-88, 211; 1894, 1, 107-108; 1897, 2, 124-'-127; offices in MiIIs Building, 6, 316; officers: 1892-1935, 21, 77-79; 1892-1943, 28, 105-108; 1892-1945, 30, 106-108; origin, 12, 428; packers and packtrain, 24, 25-28; ill., 15, 38; 17, 114; 18, 6, 22; 24, 30-31; 26, 94-95; presidency, 10, 79; publications, 10, 152-154; 19, 109-110; 20, 96; 22, 97; 28, 109-110; 30, 109-110; purposes, 5, 71-73; 8, 150; 12, 77-78; 20, 95-96; records lost in fire of 1906, 6, 131-134; registers, 1, 337-338; 2, l20-122; 23, 117; ill., 12, 157; saddle trips, 1939, 25, 21-25; 1948, 34, 130-137; seal, 10, 142; Soda Springs property, 8, 272-274; 9, 36-39; 10, 144, 359-360; map, 9, 37; ill., 9, 36, 224, 225; 17, 115; song, 15, 26; stove, 16, 4-'-5; twenty-fifth anniversary, 10, 211-212; in World War 1 (children's fund, 10, 360-361; honor roll, 10, 447-449; war service letters, 10, 450-475; war service record, 10, 320-321; 11, 106); in World War II (correspondence from members, 28, 54-'-70; 29, 1-35, 46-47; 30, . 1-43; GI climbs in the Alps, 30, 79-85; harvest camps, 29, 9091; war service record, 31, 102-111); Yosemite and the Sierra Club: 23, 11-19; 9, 297-298; Yosemite Valley headquarters, 2, 239-240; 4, 61; 10, 142-143; Lodge, ill., 10, 142; 29, 46-47

Sierra Club annual outings (or High Trips); 3, 250-253; 7, 259-260; 10, 143, 152-153; 12, 373-375; 22, 97; 33, 19-30; camps, ill., 13, 92; 15, 39; 23, 110-111; 24, 30-31; campfires, 25, 19; ill., 12, 25; 22, 62-63; 25, 14-15; 27, 32, 30-31; Comments and impressions: Appalachian's, 12, 377-381; Britisher's, 15, 22-25; Easterner's, 24, 16-24; Freshman's, 24, 16-24; Leader's, 33, 19-30; memories of twenty-nine years, 16, 1-15; packer's, 24, 25-28; Sierra Club cups, 25, 64-67; Sierra sounds, 30, 44-47; social aspects, 5, 221-228; food and commissary, 16, 5-9; 25, 15-16; ill., 11, 209; 12, 373; 24, 30-31; grazing and meadow use, 32, 59-60; 33, 29-30; 34, 140-143 Articles on outings: 12, 374; 1901 first annual outing-Yosemite National Park), 3, 250-253; 4, 12-24, 60-61; 16, 1-3; 1902 (Kings River Canyon and Mt. Brewer), 4, 62-63, 185-192, 236, 278-284, 292-300, 314-317; 16, 3; ill., 12, 376; 1903 (Kern River and Mt. Whitney), 4, 236-238; 5, 50-65, 74-75; bibliography, 5, 257; 1904 (Yosemite National Park), 5, 221-228, 240, 258; bibliography, 5, 258; 1905 (Mts. Rainier, Hood and Shasta), 6, 1-6, 50-51; 1906 (South Fork, Kings River), 6, 100-107; 1907 (Yosemite National Park and Mt. Rainier), 6, 235-243, 255-257, 261-262; 7, 85-98; 1908 (Kern River and Mt. Whitney), 7, 23-32, 61-62, 99-104; fatality, 7, 62, 63; 1909 (Yosemite National Park and Mt. Ritter), 7, 85-98, 149-152, 189-190; 1910 (South Fork, Kings River), 8, 10-17, 49-50; ill., 8, 48; 1911 (Yosemite National Park), 8, 151-157, 208; 1912 (Kern River and Cottonwood Lakes), 9, 16-27, 48-49; 1913 (South and Middle Forks of Kings River), 9, 159-164, 179-181; 1914 (Yosemite National Park and Mt. Ritter), 9, 247-Sierra Club annual outings (cont.) 257, 258-260, 292-293; ill., 9, 293; 1915 (Yosemite National Park and Devils Postpile), 9, 293-294; 10, 82-83; 1916 (Kern River Canyon and Bubbs Creek), 10, 170-178, 217-219; 1917 (Yosemite National Park), 10, 287-291, 328-329; 1919 (Yosemite National Park and Mt. Ritter), 11, 7, 14-20; 1920 (South Fork, San Joaquin River and Middle Fork, Kings River), 11, 136-150, 199-201; ill., 11, 209; 1921 (Yosemite National Park and Mt. Ritter), 11, 255-260, 307-308; 1922 (Kern River Canyon and Kings River Canyon), 11, 433-435; 1923 (Yosemite National Park), 12, 21-27, 82-83; ill., 12, 25; 1924 (Glacier National Park), 12, 115-120, 156-157, 158-162; 1925 (South and Middle Forks, Kings River and South Fork, San Joaquin River), 12, 213-223; 1926 (Yellowstone National Park), 12, 268-276, 333-355, 377-381; 1927 (Kern River and Roaring River), 13, 10-16; ill., 13, 32, 92; 1928 (Canada: Jasper Park, the Ramparts and Mt. Robson), 14, 1-12; ill., 14, 10; 1929 (South, Middle and North Forks, San Joaquin River), 15, 9-25; ill., 15, 22-25, 38, 39; 1930 (South Fork, San Joaquin River and Middle Fork, Kings River), 16, 11-15; 1931 (Yosemite National Park), 17, 1-24; ill., 17, 122; 1932 (Giant Forest, Bubbs Creek and Kern River), 18, 5-19; 1933 (South Fork, San Joaquin River and Middle Fork, Kings River), 19, 1-14; 1934 (Yosemite National Park), 20, 32-45, 48; 1935 (South Fork, Kings River), 21, 35-39, 86-87, 91-94; 1936 (Kern River), 22, 58-68, 104-106; ill., 22, 62-63; 1937 (Glacier National Park), 23, 102; ill., 23, 110-111; 1938 (North and South Forks, San Joaquin River), 24, 1-28; ill., 24, 30-31; 1939 (South Fork, San Joaquin River and Middle Fork, Kings River), 25, 8-20, 120-122; 1940 (South Fork, Kings and Kern River, 26, 16-24, 127-131; ill., 26, 94-95; 1941 (Yosemite National Park, 27, 1-13, 125-127; 1946 (Kern River, South and Middle Forks, Kings River and South Fork, San Joaquin River), 32, 19-30; 1947 (North, Middle and South Forks, San Joaquin River), 33, 19-30; 1948 (South Fork, Kings River), 34, 1-14

Sierra Club chapters: Loma Prieta, 19, 76, 78; Riverside, 18, 106; 19, 77-78; 24, 124; San Francisco Bay, 1924, 12, 189-190; 1925, 12, 312-313; 1926, 12, 426; 1927, 13, 73; 1928, 14, 74; 1929, 15, 102-103; 1930, 16, 94-95; 1931, 17, 99-100; 1932, 18, 104-105-; 1933, 19, 75-76; rock climbing section, 19, 28-30; 24, 127-128; Southern California: 1913, 9, 181; 1914, 9, 295; 1917, 10, 332-336; 1921, 11, 223; 1922, 11, 437-438, 449; 1923, 12, 86-87; 1924, 12, 190-192; 1925, 12, 313-316; 1926, 12, 426-427; 1927, 13, 74; 1928, 14, 75-76; 1929, 15, 102; 1931, 17, 98-99; 1932, 18, 105-106, 133; 1933, 19, 76-77; 1938, 24, 124-125; beginnings, 5, 126; founding, 8, 209; 10, 144

Sierra Club lodges and shelters, 20, 95-96; 22, 96-97; see also Aurelia Harwood Memorial Lodge; Clair Tappaan Memorial Lodge; J ohn Muir Memorial Shelter; LeConte Memorial Lodge; Muir Lodge; Parsons Memorial Lodge; San Antonio, Mt.-Ski Lodge; Shasta Alpine Lodge

Sierra del Pongo (Brazil), 18, 94

Sierra Forest Reservation, 1, 254-267, 284

Sierra Madre (Southern California), see San Gabriel Range

Sierra National Forest, 1, 254-267; 12, 133

Sierra Nevada, administration, 23, 91; animal life, 10, 240; 17, 12-24; 21, 86-88; 27, 14-22; 33, 11-18; see also Animals; bibliography, 15, 94-95; 28, 51-53; biology of wilderness protection, 27, 14-22; birds, 4, 132-145; 5, 262-263; 6, 245-254; 8, 118-124; 8, 158-162; 17, 21-24; see also Birds; butterflies, 9, 85-94, 99-101; 21, 88-89; collecting, 18, 47-55; see also Butterflies; camping, see Camping; campsites, 23, 90; changes, 15, 27-36; chipmunks, 10, 401-413; comparisons: Alps, 14, 85-86; 22, 1; Glacier National Park, 12; 111-114; Rocky Mountains of Colorado, 3, 189-190; conservation, see Conservation; crest traversed, 1895, 1, 314-324; 22, 101-102; 1939, 25, 129-130; crest-lines, see Crest-lines; cross-section diagram, 22, 4, 18; description, 10, 285; 15, 1-2; 16, 27-28; discovery, 13, 54-61; early explorations, 10, 135-137; 11, 375-379; earthquake, 10, 20; eastern slope, 13, 31-35; 21, 54-59; 33, 41-45; ill., 22, 110; 25, 15; Easterner's impressions, 12, 377-381; elevation of peaks over 12, -000 ft., 4, 290-291; endurance records, 23, 110-111; 26, 143; fish, 27, 16; flora, 6, 158-174; 11, 147-153; 26, 67-71; 33, 43-45; see also Trees and shrubs; Wild flowers; John Fremont in the Sierra Nevada, 11, 152-153; 15, 74-95; fungi, see Puffball; geology, 4, 292-293; 15, 1-8; see also Geological studies; Glaciers and glaciation; glaciers, see Glaciers and glaciation; grazing, 23, 90; see also Grazing and pasturage; history of explorations (10, 135-137; 11, 244-254; Fremont, John, 11, 152-153; 15, 74-95; Smith, Jedediah, 11, 375-379; 26, 30; 28, 36-53; Spanish, 13, 54-61; Walker, Capt. Joseph R., 9, 165-169; 11, 152-153; 12, 141-142; 27, 35-49); Indians, 6, 258-259; 10, 202-209; 11, 375; 12, 49, 385-400; see also Indians; insects, 9, 268-270; lakes, 3, 122; life zones, 1, 259-262; 3, 298-312; 4, 133-134; chart, 3, 301; maps by LeConte and Solomons, 1, 335-336; 4, 311; 7, 134; mining, see Mining history east of Yosemite; natural history course, 11, 105-106; nomenclature, 13, 66-67; 25, 39-40; 28, 41; see also Place names; northern Sierra, 1, 316-324; 2, 194-196; origin of name, 12, 133; 13, 54, 55; Owens Valley ascents, 13, 31-35; passes, 27, 59-64; photographs from Mt. Hamilton, 11, 408-412; ill., 11, 410-411; 12, 181; place names, see Place names; recreational values, 23, 85-96; reforestation, 3, 224-229; see also Reforestation; roads, 15, 33-34; skiing, see Skiing and ski-mountaineering; sky-line, ill., 22, 30-31; Jedediah Smith's first crossing, 11, 375-379; 15, 75; 26, 30; route, 28, 36-53; snowfall, 6, 310-314; 15, 73; 34, 55-67; see also Snowfall in the Sierra Nevada; soil formation, 11, 85; sounds, 30, 44-46; summit formation, 11, 181-193; Telescope Peak view of Sierra Nevada, ill., 27, 79; trails, 15, 31-33; 23, 86-90; 26', 123-125; see also Trails; trees, 1, 259-262, 282-283; 2, 61-78, 156-173; 3, 298-312; 4, 100-131, 154, 299; see also Trees and shrubs; wagon trips, 3, 210-217; Capt. Joseph R. Walker's explorations, 9, 165-169; 11, 152-153; 12, 141-142; 15, 75; 27, 35-49; wilderness areas, 23, 93-96; see also Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation; Winter, 3, 126, 242; 4, 64-66, 156-159, 216-227; 7, 105-118, 237-242; 8, 249-259; 15, 69-73, 97-98; weather records, 15, 72-73; see also Sierra Nevada-Snowfall; zones, see Sierra Nevada-Life zones; illustrations, see Sierra Nevada-Photographs from Mt. Hamilton; glacier variation, 5, 20-25; grade profile in glacial erosion, 5, 271-278; ill., 5, 271, 273, 275, 276; Kern Canyon glaciation, 13, 17-19; lake ramparts, 5, 157; 6, 225-234; ill., 6, 225; moraines with ice cores, 33, 87-96; mountain building, 11, 181-193; mountain sculpture, 9, 225-239; mountain summit collapse, 11, 290-291; post-glacial denudation, 10, 414-428; rock-sliding and striped rock floor of Little Yosemite Valley, 8, 3-9; ill., 8, 6, 7; Shepherd Crest and Little Lost Valley, 18, 68-80; 34, 82-86; ill., 18, 70; 34, 86-87; snow sheet formation, ill., 23, 15; soil formation, 11, 69-85; Studies in the Sierra by John Muir (l-Mountain sculpture, 9, 225-239; 2-Mountain sculpture, origin of Yosemite valleys, 10, 62-77; 3-Ancient glaciers and their pathways, 10, 184-201; 4-Glacial denudation, 10, 304-318; 5-Post-glacial denudation, 10, 414-428; 6-Formation of soils, 11, 69-85; 7-Mountain-building, 11, 181-193); Whitney region's geologic history, 22, 1-18; winds of Yosemite Valley, 8, 89-95; Yosemite Valley, glacial history, 9, 136-147; 10, 62-77, 184-201; studies by F. E. Matthes (l-The extinct Eagle Peak Falls, 7, 222-224; 2-The striped rock floor of the Little Yosemite Valley, 8, 3-9; 3-The winds of the Yosemite Valley, 8, 89-95; 4-El Capitan moraine and ancient Lake Yosemite, 9, 7-15); Yosemite Valley and Kings Canyon compared, 12, 224-236; see also Cleavage; Erosion; Glaciers and glaciation; Nivation; Sierra Nevada-Geology; Whitney, Mt.; Yosemite Valley-Geology, Glacial origin Geyser, see Casa Diablo Hot Springs " Geyser" ; Old Faithful Geyser

Sierra Point, 2, 216-221; 25, 43

Sierra Puffball, see Puffball, Sierra

Sierra San Pedro Martir (Mexico), 18, 56-62; ill., 18, 55, 58, 59, 62

Sierraville ski tour, 31, 10-14

Sill, Mt., 24, 53-54; first ascent, and naming, 1903, 5, 3, 13; 12, 133; 19, 24; 24, 42, 53; ascents, 12, 221; 13, 87; 16, 105; 23, 34-35, 104; traverse to North Palisade, 16, 105; !9, 25-26, 95; 20, 73; ill., 5, 11, 15; 10, 223; 11, 267; 12, 64, 304; 19, 94-95; 21, 30-31; 23, 62-63

Silliman, Mt., 12, 133

Silver Creek, 12, 133

Silver Lake, 1, 320-321

Silver Mountain (Washington), ill., 22, 94-95

Silver Pass, 11, 44-45; 12, 133; 24, 22-23; ill., 11, 41; 15, 22; 24, 30-31; 33, 30; 34, 14-15

Silver Peak, 12, 133

Silver Spray Falls, 12, 134

Silver Star, Mt. (Washington), 22, 75-77

Silversword (Argyroxiphium), 11, 237; ill., 11, 238

Silvertop (Montana), 12, 369

Simmons Peak, 12, 134

Simon Peak (Canada), 13, 5

Simpson Meadow, 4, 255; 9, 162; Tehipite Valley trail, 10, 225; ill., 6, 120; 8, 41; 10, 222; 11, 149; 12, 309

Simpson Peak, 21, 100

Sing Peak, 12, 134

Siniolchun ( Himalayas ), ill., 31, 14

Sir Donald, Mt. (Canada), 23, 104; ill., 23, 110-111

Sixty Lake Basin, 3, 139; map, 3, 136; ill., 21, 94--95; 26, 14--15; 32, 30-31

Sixty Lakes Pass, 27, 63

Skies, see Skis

Skiing and ski-mountaineering, 9, 271-273; 15, 64-68; 20, 1-19; Alps, 18, 113; Andes, 29, 77-81; ascents, see Mts. Clark, Lyell, Starr King, Whitney, Winchell, etc.; bibliography, 15, 68; 20, 5; Bishop Creek, 23, 36-39; ill., 23, 14--15; California (16, 39-43; 20, 1-7; ski terrain, 33, 97-102; airphotos, 33, 102-103); Camp Hale (Colorado), 28, 55-56, 59-60; Crater Lake, 10, 356-358; early history of skiing, 3, 125; 9, 200, 271-273; 10, 356-358; 15, 64--65; early illustrations of skiing (in Lapland, 23, 100-101; ill., 23, 62-63; Snowshoe Thompson, 20, 8-19; ill., 20, 11, 17, 30-31; snow-skating, 1865, ill., 17, 123; ill., 9, 83, 272); east side of the Sierra Nevada, 21, 54--59; 23, 106-107; equipment: clothing, miscellaneous items, 20, 6; 22, 46-47; skis, 4, 312-313; 20, 5; 23, 37; sled, 3, 246; 5, 318-319; snowshoes, 4, 64-66; 5, 318; tent, 5, 319-320; 22, 39-42; 26, 90-94; see also Camping-Winter; Skis; Sled; Tent; Equipment Testing Expedition to Mt. McKinley, 1942, 28, 1-35; food, see Camping-food and commissary; games, 32, 11-14; lodges and cabins, 15, 98; 25, 116; see also Clair Tappaan Memorial Lodge; Pear Lake Ski Cabin; Peter Grubb Hut; Mazamas, 1913, 9, 200; Mineral King region, 34, 112-118; John Muir, 3, 125; John Muir Trail, 15, 69-73; Palisades region, ill., 23, 62-63; photographs, see end of skiing and ski mountaineering section; pronunciation-" Skee" vs. "Shee," 23, 98--99; Mt. Rainier N. P ., ill., 9, 83; safety precautions, 20, 6; Sierra Nevada, 11, 292-299; 15, 67, 69- 73; 16, 39-46; 18, 132-133; 19, 88-89; 20, 1-7; 21, 54-59, 104-106; 23, 36-45, 106-107; 26, 141-143; 31, 10-14; 32, 89-95, 134; 33; 97-102; 34, 112-118; ill., 9, 272; Sierraville, 31, 10-14; sites, 33, 97-102; Southern California, 19, 42-47; 25, 70-71; technique, 9, 271-272; see also Skiing and ski mountaineering-equipment; tests, 20, 4; Tioga Pass, 18, 132-133; ill., 15, 66; Trans-Sierra, 11, 292-299; 18, 132-133; Tuolumne Meadows, 21, 104-106; 32, 89-95, 134; ill., 16, 39, 42; waxes, 20, 6, 12; Mt. Whitney, 27, 127-128; Whitney Pass, 23, 106; Yosemite National Park, 16, 44-46; 19, 88-89; 21, 104-106; 26, 141-142; ski huts and trails, 25, 116; ski photographs and illustrations, 4, 312; 9, 83; 11, 294, 295; 15, 66, 67, 70, 71, 74, 75; 16, 38, 39, 42, 43, 46; 17, 123; 19, 47; 20, 11, 17, 30-31; 22, 94-95; 23, 14-15, 62-63; 26, 94-95; 27, 30-31; 28, 30-31; 33, 30-31; 34, 35; see also Skis

Skis: compared with snowshoes, 4, 65; construction, 4, 312-313; ill., 4, 312; selecting, 20, 5; 23, 37

Skyparlor Meadow, il113, 25

Sky pilot, see Polemonium

Sky-line Trail (Mt. Rainier N. P.}, ill., 6, 17

Slate valleys, 10, 62

Sled, 3, 246; 4, 216; 5, 318; ill., 5, 318

Slide Canyon, 1, 177, 332; map, 1, 177; ill., 11, 450

Slide Pass, 3, 141

Slippery Ford, 1, 320

Smedberg Lake, 12, 134; ill., 8, 208

Smith Meadow and Peak, 12, 134; Snag-tooth Ridge (Washington), ill., 22, 94-95

Snake River (Wyoming), ill., 30, 47

Snake-bite, 12, 171-172; 18, 42-46

Snow camping, see Camping-Snow, Winter; Skiing and ski mountaineering

Snow chutes, 22, 15

Snow Creek Falls, ill., 7, 168

Snow detail, ill., 18, 127; 26, 14-15

Snow Gulch, 3, 109

Snow Peak, 27, 125

Snow-bird, see Junco

Snow-brush (Ceanothus integerrimus), 3, 310

Snowfall in the Sierra Nevada, 6, 310-314; 15, 69-73; 16, 43; 34, 55-67; bibliography, 34, 67; charts, 6, 311-314; 34, 56, 62-63, 64

Snowpatch Spire (Canada), 24, 61; 26, 59-63; first ascent, 1940, 26, 62; 34, 68; ascent, 27, 123-125; ill., 24, 62-63; 26, 94-95

Snow-plant (Sarcodes sanguinea), 4, 13-14; 11, 147

Snowshoes, 4, 64-66; 5, 318; 17, 37-38; ill., 4, 65, 66

Snow-skating, 1865, ill., 17, 123

Snow-Tongue Pass, 5, 160

Snowy Range (Wyoming), 12, 283-288

Soda Creek poison meadows, 4, 213

Soda Springs, 3, 66-67; Merced Canyon, 6, 237, 292; 7, 44; Tuolumne Meadows, 3, 55; 10, 110-111; Chemical analysis, 10, 111-112; ill., 1, 136; 3, 55; 17, 115

Soda Springs property of Sierra Club, see Sierra Club-Soda Springs property

Soil flow (solifluction), 18, 72; 22, 17

Soil formation, 11, 69-85

Solifluction, see Soil flow

Solitaire, Townsend, 17, 22-23

Sorata, Mt. (Andes), 8, 278

Sotcher Lake, 12, 134

South Africa, 30, 92-94

South America, 7, -249-250; see also Andes

South America, Lake, 12, 134

South Dome, see Half Dome; Sentinel Dome

South Fork, see name of river

South Guard, 10, 230-231; 12, 134, 307; ill., 2, 20; 7, 187; 26, 94-95

South Kaweah, see Kaweah, Mt.

South Lyell Glacier, see Nevada Glacier

South Palisade, see Split Mountain

South Park Canyon, 24, 107

Southern California Conservation Association, 12, 94

Southern California mountains, 11, 49-55; 25, 68-72; mountains over 5000 feet, 31, 115-117

Southfork Pass, 24, 48

Spanish discovery and exploration, 13, 54-61

Sparrow, Chipping (Spizella passerina), 6, 252; White-crowned (Zonotrichia leucophrys), 4, 143; ill., 4, 142

Spectre of the Brocken, 22, 105; 28, 57

Spencer, Mt., 5, 234; 12, 134; 27, 87, 99; ill., 11, 137, 144, 279; 19, 14-15

Sphinx, 26, 131; ill., 21, 94-95; 26, 94-95

Spiller Creek, 1, 172-173; 12, 135

Spiller Lake, 12, 135

Spiraea, Desert (Chamaebatiaria millefolium), 9, 41-42

Spirit Lake (Washington), ill., 7, 170

Spizella, see Sparrow, Chipping

Split Mountain, 11, 314; 12, 135; first ascent, 1902, 4, 262; 11, 252, 314, 423; 12, 62; ascents, 11, 314, 423; 19, 94; 23, 35; origin of name, 1, 309; 11, 423; 12, 62, 135; Winter, 26, 142; ill., 1, 309; 4, 253, 261; 11, 422; 15, 71; 25, 14-15

Split Pinnacle, 24, 129; 25, 58-59; 26, 139

Spray Park (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 16, 63

Spruce, 2, 157-159; Big-cone (Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), 2, 162; Blue (Picea pungens), 2, 159; Columbian (Picea columbiana), 2, 158; Douglas (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), 2, 161; ill., 2, 156; Engelmann's (Picea Engelmanni), 2, 159; ill., 2, 160; Feather-cone (Exsertae), 2, 160; Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), 4, 299; Naked-cone (Inclusae), 2, 157-160; Tide-land (Picea sitchensis), 2, 157-158; Weeping (Picea breweriana), 2; 158; ill., 4, 51

Squirrel, 21, 87; Douglas, 8, 26; 10, 401, 405; Flying, 12, 342; 17, 19; Yellowstone N. P., 12, 341-342; Yosemite N. P., 17, 18-19; ill., 12, 105; see also Ground-squirrel

Stanfield Grazing Bill, 12, 298, 410

Stanford, Mt. (Kings-Kern Divide), 2, 22; 3, 156-157; first ascent and naming, 1896, 2, 94, 121; 3, 109; 12, 135; 26, 40; ascents, 17, 20

Stanford, Mt. (Mt. Goddard), 12, 135; 13, 81

Stanford Basin and Stanford Brook, 3, 110

Stanford Point, 31, 120

Stanley, Mt. (Ruwenzori Range, Africa), ill., 31, 14-15

Starbird GI.acier (Canada), 9, 243-244; ill., 9, 244

Starr, Mt., 32, 130

Starr King, Mt., 12, 135-136; 17, 115-118; 21, 96; 25, 53; first ascent, 1876, 12, 136; 17, 116; 25, 43, 53; ascents, 12, 136; 17, 115-118; origin of name, 12, 135; Winter, 23, 44, 117; 25, 53

State Parks Commission, see California

State Parks Commission

State Peak, 12, 136

Steer's head flower (Dicentra uniftora), 8, 266-269 : 26, 69 : ill., 8, 267, 268

Stefansson expedition, 1917, 10, 324

Stikine Glaciers (Alaska), 12, 121-125; ill., 12, 123

Stikine River (Alaska), 10, 347-349; 12, 121; ill., 12, 121, 122

Stiletto Needle (Canada), 33, 8-9, 127

Stiletto-Dentiform Ridge, 33, 1-10; ill., 33, 6-7

Stocking streams and lakes, see Trout planting

Stone's Peak (Colorado), ill., 3, 193, 195

Stove, 6, 3

Strawberry Lake area, ill., 33, 102-103

Strawberry Peak, 25, 128

Striped Mountain, 12, 136; ascent, 11, 422; origin of name, 1, 309; 11, 423 j ill., 11, 422

Strobus pines, 2, 65

Stuart's Fork (Trinity Alps), ill., 11, 367

Stubblefield Canyon, 1, 330-332; ill., 3, 161

Sugar Bowl, ill., 27, 30-31

Sugarloaf, 1, 188 : 12, 136; 22, 106; ill., 1, 188

SugarJoaf Creek and Meadows, 12, 136

Sun Dance Canyon, ill., 28, 78-79

Sunrise Mountain, 18, 134

Sunset Peak (Trinity Alps), 4, 49, 69; ill., 4, 41

Susanville, 2, 194-195

Swallow, Violet-green (Tachycineta thalassina), 4, 135-136

Swedish bread, see Ryekrisp

Sweet-scented shrub (Calycanthus occidentalis), 3, 305

Switzerland, 8, 289; 14, 85; see also Alps; Matterhorn; ObergabeJhorn; Rothorn; Weisshorn

Swift, White-throated (Aeronautes melanoleucus), 6, 251

Symmetry Spire (Grand Teton N. P.), 32, 129

T

Table Mountain, 7, 72-73; 12, 136; 13, 88; ill., 9, 48; 13, 29; 18, 126; 22, 14-15, 30-31

Table Mountain (Bishop Creek), 21, 103; 25, 126; ill., 23, 14-15

Table Mountain (Colorado), ill., 3, 196

Taboose Pass, 12, 136; ill., 8, 68

Tacoma, Mt., see Rainier, Mt.

Taft Point, 12, 136; 24, 129

Tahoe, Lake, 3, 96-100; knapsack trips, 1, 314-324; origin of name, 15, 87; Winter, 3, 119-126; 4, 216-227; 9, 274-277, ill., 8, 140, 141, 257; 9, 272, 274, 275; 25, 102-103

Tahoe Forest Reserve, 2, 321; National Park status proposed, 8, 141

Tahoe National Forest, 8, 291; ill., 27, 30-31

" Tahoe National Park" proposed, 8, 141

Tahoe Valley, ill., 25, 102-103

Tahoe-Yosemite trail, 10, 256, 374, 486

Tahoma, Mt., see Rainier, Mt.

Tahquitz National Game Preserve, 11, 353

Tahquitz Rock, 23, 111-112; .?5, 71

Tai Shan (China), 10, 165-169; ill., 10, 166

Tamalpais Conservation Club, 12, 311

Tamalpais State Park, 5, 85; 9, 185-188; 13, 79-80; Tamalpais National Park proposed, 8, 140-141; ill., 9, 185

Tamarack Flat, 12, 137

Tamarack Meadow, 3, 110

Tamarack pine, see Pine, Lodgepole

Tamrack pine, see Pine, Lodgepole

Tanager, Western (Piranga ludoviciana), 6, 246

Tappaan Lodge, see Clair Tappaan Memorial Lodge

Tar bush, see Mountain misery.

Tarn Erica, 3, 110

Tatoosh Range (Mt. Rainier N. P.), 6, 15-21; ill., 6, 15, 17, 18, 21; 9, 82, 83

Taxaceae (Yews), 4, 125-126

Taxodiae, 2, 63, 168-172

Taxodium, 18, 117-118; see also Sequoia

Taxus, see Yew

Taylor Act, 32, 38-42

Tehachipi Range, 31, 116

Tehipite Dome, 2, 47; 6, 119; 10, 354; 11, 142; elevation, 2, 284; origin of name, 12, 137; ill., 2, 44; 6, 115; 9, 49, 125, 146; 11, 173, 196; 20, 63; 29, 46-47

Tehipite Valley, 9, 125; 10, 352-356; 12, 137; map, 12, 127; route to Kings RiverCanyon, 2, 44-49, 106-110; map, 2, 49; Simpson Meadows trail, 10, 225; ill., 9, 7, 49, 75, 125

Telegraph Peak, ill., 19, 46-47

Telescope Peak (Death Valley), 10, 285; 24, ~1, 86; 27, 83-85; fi.rst ascent, 1860, 27, 84; ascents, 13, 36-39; 25, 125; 27, 84; ill., 27, 78-79

Tellot Glacier (Canada), ill., 33, 6-7

Tellot Peak (Canada), 33, 126

Tempest Peak, ill., 27, 3Q-, 31

Temple Crag, 9, 262; 13, 33; 24, 57; fi.rst ascent, 1909, 24, 57; ascents, 11, 312-313; 12, 420; 20, 73; North Peak, 26, 141; ill., 9, 1; 12, 64

Ten Lakes Basin, 12, 137; ill., 10, 329, 414, 415; 11, 20; 20, 62-Q3

Tenaces pines, 2, 74-75

Tenaya Canyon, 7, 153-169; 9, 127; 25, 49; early explorations, 7, 153-154; 9, 127; 10, 276-281; map, 9, 134; Mono Indian trail, 10, 278; traverses, 3, 23Q-, 235; 7, 153-169; 9, 126...133; 10, 276-281; 19, lor; 21, 96; ill., 7, 153, 168; 9, 126-132; 11, 101

Tenaya Creek, 12, 137

Tenaya Glacier, 3, 62; 10, 186-188

Tenaya Lake, 3, 52-53; 12, 137; Tuolumne Meadows trail, 25, 113; ill., 3, 53; 6, 225; 9, 147; 10, 487

Tenaya Lake Camp, 12, 42

Tenaya Peak, 3, 55; ill., 10, 487

Teneiya, see Tenaya

Tent, 5, 319-320; 22, 39-42; diagrams, 22, 39, 40, 41; sectional tent, 26, 9Q-, 94; diagrams, 26, 91, 92

Tenth Mountain Division, 30, 79-85; 31, 32-56 -

Terminales pines, 2, 67

Teton, Grand, see Grand Teton

Teton, Middle, see Middle Teton

Tetons (Grand Teton N. P.), 11, 162; 12, 360; 16, 49; 32, 102; ascents, 32, 101-103, 128-129, 133; 33, 121; ; U 11, 164, 165; 12, 356, 357, 360, 361; 30, 47; see also Grand Teton; Grand Teton National Park; Middle Teton

Tharp's Peak, see Alta Peak

Tharp's Rock, 12, 138

Thielsen, Mt. (Oregon), 20, 109

Third Needle, 26, 114; 34, 145

Thomomys, see Gopher

Thompson, Mt. (Evolution peaks), 27, 96-97; first ascent, 1909, 10, 440; 27, 96; origin of name, 12, 138; 27, 88; ill., 11, 275

Thompson Canyon, 1, 179; ill., 3, 161

Thompson Peak (Trinity Alps), 4, 68; 21, 95; ill., 11, 367; 21, 14-15

Thompson Ridge, ill., 11, 275

Thor Peak, 23, 105; 26, 115

Thordyke's Canyon, see South Park Canyon

Thousand Island Lake, 8, 171; ill., 11, 16; 15, 58, 75; 24, 30-31

Three Brothers, 12, 138; 27, 132; ill., 23, 111; see also Brothers -Lower Brother, Middle Brother

Three Fingered Jack (Oregon), 20, 109; Ill., 3, 204; Three Patriarchs (Zion N. P.), ill., 10, 340

Three Sisters (Oregon), 8, 53-54; ill., 3, 204

Three Teeth (Yosemite N.P.), 19, 31-33; 20, 47-48; 22, 54-56; 27, 126-127; ill., 19, 46-47; 22, 52; see also Sawtooth Ridge

Thrush, Sierra Hermit (Hylochichla guttata, 4, 37-38; 6, 250; 8, 161; ill., 8, 159

Thumb (Mt. Hoffman), see Hoffman, Mt.-The " Thumb"

Thumb, The (Palisade Creek), 11, 271-274; 24, 56.

Thunder Mountain, 12, 13& ; 13, 88; 18, 127; 26, 135

Thunderbolt Peak, 17, 125; 19, 95; 24, 51; 32, 130; ill., 23, 62-63

Thuya, 4, 101, 102; see also Arbor-vitae

Tiedemann, Mt. and Tiedemann group (Canada), ill., 33, 6-7

Tilden Lake, 8, 155; ill., 8, 157; 27, 78, 79

Timber exchanges, 9, 177-178, 206-207, 211, 316; 10, 106; 11, 329-330

Timber-line forest, ill., 10, 158 " " '-

Tinemaha Mountain, 23, 10'}---

Tioga Mine, 3, 322; 13, 44

Tioga Pass, 12, 138; winter, 18, 132-133; 32, 90--91

Tioga Road (Yosemite N. P .), 8, 132; 10, 97; 12, 138; 34, 37, 38; improvement, 34, 50--54; Leevining Grade, 7, 195; relocation, 19, 85-88; standards, 34, 37, 38, 50--54; ill., 34, 34-35

Tirek (Caucasus), 2, 295, 297

Toluca, see Nevado de Toluca

Tom, Mt., 12, 420; 13, 35

Tonquin Pass (Canada), ill., 13, 5

Tonquin Valley (Canada), 13, 1-9; bibliography, 13, 9

Tooth, East; Middle; West, see Three Teeth

Topocobya Canyon (Arizona), 4, 81

Topographic maps, 10, 238

Totem pole drawings by John Muir, 10, 41, 61

Tower Peak, 2, 282; 8, 155; 27, 126; first ascent, 1870, 12, 419; ill., 2, 282; 3, 161; 8, 155, 157; 27, 78, 79

Tower Rock (Kern River), ill., 5, 60; 10, 423

Towhee, Green-tailed, 6, 252

Towne's Pass, 24, 81-82, 90

Townsend Solitaire, see Solitaire, Townsend

Toyon conservation, 11, 97-98

Trail building, improvement and maintenance, 2, 110; 9, 49; 10, 336; 26, 123-125; 31, 57-67; diagrams and drawings, 15, 43, 44; 31, 57-67; see also Trails and trail systems

Trails and trail systems, 23, 86-90; 25, 108-116; see also Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation-Trails

Tre Cime di Lavaredo (Dolomites), 30, 80--81

Trees and shrubs: Kings River region, 4, 298-300; Redding to Trinity Mountains, 4, 39-58; zonal distribution, 3, 298-312; see also Conifers of the Pacific Slope; Plants; see also Arbor-vitae; Ash; Aspen; Big tree; Bryanthus; Buckeye; Buckthorn; Button bush; Cactus; Cedar; Chemisal; Christmas trees; Cryptomeria; Cypress; Dogwood; Eucalyptus; Fir, Fremontia. " Grizzly Giant" ; " Guardian of the Grove" ; Hemlock; Ironwood; Joshua tree; Juniper; Kit Carson tree; Larch; Lightning-struck tree; Live oak; Mahogany; Metasequoia; Mountain misery; Nutmeg; Oak; Palm; Pine; Poison Ivy and Oak; Poppy, Bush; Redbud; Redwood; Ribes velutinum; Saguaro cactus; Sequoia; Service bush; Spiraea; Spruce; Sweet-scented shrub; Toyon; Willow; Yerba Santa; Yew

Triangulation, 16, 99-100; map of Ritter-Whitney triangulation, 2, 286

Trident, The (Yellowstone), ill., 12, 365

Trinity Alps, 4, 39-58; 21, 12-21, 94, 95; bibliography, 21, 21; flora, 4, 53-58; record of ascents, 21, 95-96; routes and camps, 4, 67-69; ill., 4, 41; 11, 366, 367, 370, 371, 374, 375; 21, 14-15

Trinity County, 4, 66-69

Trinity National Forest, 4, 320-322

Triple Divide Peak, 11, 127-128; 18, 126; 22, 105; 26, 131; " Pass, " 8, 167; 10, 182; ill., 8, 167; 11, 120

Triple Falls (Cartridge Creek), 4, 257; ill., 9, 162-163; 29, 46-47

Triple Peak Falls, 6, 292-293

Trout, 9, 48; 21, 87; Golden, 7, 26, 195; 8, 165, 193-199, 215-216; 11, 398-399; coloration, 8, 68, 75, 166, 216; Cottonwood Creek, 8, 193-199; 9, 48; protection and preservation, 7, 52-53; varieties, 8, 196-197; Loch Leven, 7, 255; Nelson Rainbow, 18, 57

Trout planting, 6, 198; 7, 26, 50-52, 55-59, 252-257; 8, 64-75, 165, 215-216; 9, 308-310; Cottonwood Creek and Lakes, 8, 193-199; 9, 48; Gardiner Creek and Kings River, 7, 195, 252-254; Kern River region, 9, 48; report by W. E. Colby, 1908; 7, 50-54; Yosemite N. P., 7, 127, 198; 8, 222-223; ill., 7, 26, 252-257; 8, 66, 67, 69

Trout transportation, see Trout planting

Truckee Valley, ill., 11, 295

Tsashtl, see Shasta

Tsuga (Hemlock spruces), 2, 159; see also Hemlock; Spruce, Hemlock

Tucki Mountain, 24, 81, 88

Tueeulala Fall, 6, 212-214; 7, 152; ill., 7, 152, 260

Tulainyo Lake, 10, 231; 12, 139, 382

Tumbling Glacier (Canada), ill., 10, 269, 273; 14, 86, 87

Tumion, see Nutmeg

Tunemab Pass, 12, 139; 26, 38 : 27, 63

Tunemab Peak, 12, 139

Tunnabora Peak, 10, 231 : 12, 139; 26, 110

Tuolumne, Grand Canyon of the, 1, 9-16, 199-208; 2, 174-184; 5, 287-296; 6, 221-222; 7, 221; diagrams, 10, 69; 198; explorations, 1, 9-16, 199-208; 2, 50-52, 174-184; 4, 25-30; 6, 56-58, 238-243; 7, 216-217; 9, 258-260; 12, 65-74; 25, 37; geology, 1, 11; origin of name, 12, 139; rattlesnakes, 2, 182; 5, 295; trail, 11, 307; 12, 303; ill., 2, 50; 4, 31; 5, 290, 292; 6, 235, 241, 256; 7, 216-221; 8, 224; 9, 254-256, 258-261; 17, 82, 83, 86, 87; 20, 62; 27, 78-79; see also Hetch-Hetchy Valley; Muir Gorge; Pate Valley; see also Cathedral Creek -Falls; LeConte Fal1s; Tuolumne Falls; Waterwheel Fa11s

Tuolumne Falls, ill., 5, 290; 6, 256

Tuolumne Meadows, 1, 10-12; 3, 55-57; 5, 287; 6, 221; 7, 149-150; 8, 1-2; 11, 13-14, 21-28; 12, 41; 23, 96-98; origin of name, 12, 139; routes (Eleanor Lake, 1, 330-332; Hetch-Hetchy, 1, 332-333; Jackass Meadows, 1, 333-335; Yosemite Valley, 5, 314); Sierra Club property, see Sierra Club-Soda Springs property; skiing, 21, 104-106; 32, 89-95, 134; Soda Springs, 3, 55; 8, 272-274; 10, 110-112; trails, 25, 113-114; Winter, 21, 104-106; 32, 89-95, 134; Mt. Whitney in six days, 26, 143; ill., 1, 136; 3, 55; 4, 19; 6, 235; 7, 95, 149; 8, 1, 40, 151, 225; 9, 36, 224, 247, 252, 293; 10i 435, 446; 11, 411; 12, 32; 34, 35

Tuolumne Meadows Camp, 12, 41

Tuolumne Pass, 10, 477; ill., 16, 43, 46

Tuoluml1e Peak, ill., 23, 14-15

Tuolumne River, 12, 139; ill., 4, 19; 6, 235; 7, 69; 9, 254, 259; 17, 10; Lyell Fork, ill., 7, 94, 150; 10; 446; see also Tuolumne, Grand Canyon of the

" Turret, The" (Sierra Nevada), 3, 110

Turret, The (Yellowstone N. P; ), ill., 12, 341

Turret Peak (Canada, ill., 13, 8; 14, 6

Tuttle Pass, 26, 106

Twin Peaks, ill., 11, 423

Tyndall, Mt., 12, 140, 443-444; 26, 107; first ascent, 1864, 11, 252-253; 12, 140, 443-444; 14, 40; 26, 32, 103, 107; ascents, 1, 214-220; 11, 440; 25, 124; 26, 130; origin of name, 11, 252; 12, 140, 443-444; West Peak, 12, 107; ill., 1, 91; 10, 214; 18, 30

Tyndall Col, 26, 106

Typhoid fever vaccination, 12, 174

Tyrol, 12, 289-296

U

Uinta Mountains (Utah), 24, 109-120; ill., 24, 62-63

Umbrella plant (Peltiphyllum peltatum), 27, 24

Unicorn Peak (Cathedral range), 12, 140; 17, 113; 20, 103; ill., 1, 136; 3, 55; 7, 95, 149; 8, 1, 225; 9, 224, 252, 292; 12, 32

Unicorn Peak (Mt. Rainier N. P.), 6, 15-21; ill., 6, 18, 21

United States Army Mountain troops, 30, 79-85; 31, 32-56

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Bench marks, 16, 99-100

United States Forest Service, 6, 140-141; 8, 286-287; 11, 222-223; forest fire precautions, 8, 142-143; multiple-use policy in National Forests, 4, 71-72; 6, 125-127; 32, 71-74; National parks policy, 8, 139; San Francisco headquarters, 7, 82-83; see also National Forests; Trout planting. United States Geological Survey, maps, 2, 115-117, 285; meteorological observatories see Meteorological observatories

United States National Forests ; National Parks and Monuments, see National Forests; National Parks and Monuments

University of California, Forestry Department, 9, 209; 10, 376; Wood Technology Laboratory, ill., 10, 368

University of California Peak, see University Peak

University Peak, 12, 140; first ascent, 1896; 2, 83-84; 12, 140; 26, 40; ascents, 2, 20; 4, 242; 8, 14; 26, 129; name given to Mt. Gould, 11, 399; 12, University Peak (cont.) 140; origin of name, 1, 100; 12, 140; panorama from, 3, 173; routes, Bullfrog Lake, 3, 154-155; 13, 32; ill., 2, 81; 7, 240; 8, 285; 10, 191; 11, 410-411; 29, 46-47

U-notch route (North Palisade), 24, 47

Upper Basin, see Kings River, South Fork-Upper Basin

V

Valle de la Grulla (Mexico), ill., 18, 55

Valley View (Yosemite N. P.), ill., 3, 32

Van Trump Park (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 16, 66

Vandever, Mt., 12, 140; ill., 4, 302

Vermilion Valley, 1, 227; 12, 140

Vermivora rubricapilla, see Warbler, Calaveras

Vernal Fall, 3, 37; 6, 308; 12, 140; ill., 3, 28, 37; 6, 308

Vernon, Lake, map, l, 185; ill., 2, 282

Victoria, Mt. (Canada), ill., 8, 189

Vidette Lake, ill., 8, 14

Vidette Meadows, map of route to Grouse Meadow, 11, 359

Videttes, 2, 272; 12, 141; ill., 2, 79, 272; 10, 207; 15, 67; East Vidette, ill., 8, 13, 48-49; 10, 179; 26, 14-15; West

Vidette, ill., 8, 274

Vigilant, Mt. (Canada), 22, 33

Vireo, Cassin (Lanivireo solitarius), 8, 119-120; Red-eyed, 5, 106-107; Warb-ling (Vireosylva gilva), 6, 253

Virginia Canyon, 10, 287-291; ill., 10, 288

Vogelsang Lake, 12, 141

Vogelsang Pass, 12, 141; ill., 20, 30-31

Vogelsang Peak, 12, 141

Volcanic Knob, 12, 141

Volcanic Ridge and Volcanic Peaks, 23, 32; 24, 7; ill" 23, 30-31

Volcano Creek, 12, 141; see also Golden Trout Creek

Volcano Falls, 12, 141

Volcanoes, 29, 67-76; see also Asama-Yama; Coast Range of Mexico and Central America ; Devils Postpile, N . M.; Fujiyama; Haleakala; Hawaii N. P.; Ice caves; Kilauea; Lassen, Mt.; Lassen Volcanic N. P.; Lava; Lava Beds, N.M.; Mayon; Mexico-Mountains; Mono Craters; Paricutin Volunteer Peak, 12, 128; ill., 17, 1 Vosges Mountains (France), 11, 175-180

W

Waddington, Mt. (Canada), 1935, 21, 1-11; 1936, 22, 29-37; 1947, 33, 1-10; first ascent, 22, 32; ill., 21, 1, 14-15; 33, 1

Wagon trips to the Sierra, 3, 210-217

Walker Pass, 12, 141-142; 27, 47

Walker River, 12, 141-142

Wallace, Mt., 27, 95-96; first ascent and naming, 1895, 12, 142; 26, 40; 27, 87, 95-96; ill., 11, 137; 19, 14-15; see also Mendel, Mt.

Wallace Creek and Lake, 12, 431

Walton, Mt. Izaak, see Izaak Walton, Mt.

Wanda Lake, 5, 236-237; 12, 142; 27, 88

Wapama Fall, 6, 214; 7, 152; ill., 7, 152, 263

Wapta, Mt. (Canada), 23, 103-104

Warbler, Audubon (Dendroica auduboni), 4, 141; 6, 253; ill., 4, 141; Calaveras (Vermivora rubricapilla), 8, 120-121; Pileo1ated (Wilsonia pusilla), 6, 253; Yosemite Valley, 6, 253

Warren, Mt., 12, 142

Wasatch Range (Utah), 11, 61

Washburn Lake, 2, 198; 12, 142; ill., 6, 236, 292; 7, 39

Washburn Plateau, 11, 315; 17, 8-9

Washington, Mt. (New Hampshire), 3, 313-318; 28, 55

Washington, Mt. (Oregon), 20, 109

Washington Column, 19, 100; 23, 117; first ascent, 1934, 21, 97; ascents, 21, 97; 22, 106-107; 25, 119; direct route, 26, 137; fat man chimney, 25, 56; lunch ledge, 25, 52, 56; piton traverse, 25, 56; ill., 3, 43; 8, 132

Waskingtonia filifera, see Palm, Washington

Watch Tower, see Sphinx

Water and Forest Association, 3, 224

Water Ouzel (Cinclus mexicanus unicolor), 1, 57-58; 4, 137-138; 5, 102-107; 6, 247; poem, 6, 244; ill., 5, 105, 106; 6, 44

Water Power, 7, 84; 8, 292; sites, 11, 430, 441-446

Waterfalls, see Hetch-Hetchy Valley; -Tuo1umne, Grand Canyon of the; Y 0-semite Valley

Waterproofing, 22, 42, 46

Waterwheel Falls, 1, 14, 204; ill., 7, 221; 8, 224; 9, 254, 256

Watkins, Mt., 7, 167; 12, 143; ill., 8, 89; 16, 38

Watkins Gully, 26, 139

Watkins Pinnacles, 33, 121-122

Waucoba Mountain, 27, 137

Weasel, Mountain, 17, 17

Weather observations on the John Muir Trail in winter, 15, 69-73; see also Snowfall

Weather observatories, see Meteorological observatories

Weathering, see Erosion

Weisshorn (Switzerland), ill., 6, 78

Wellingtonia gigantea, 18, 116; see also Sequoia gigantea

Wells Peak, 12, 143

West Spur, 26, 135

West Temple (Zion N.P.), 19, 38-41; ill., 19, 46-47

West Vidette, ill., 8, 274; see also Videttes

Western Divide, ill., 4, 306

Weston Meadow, 12, 143

Wetterstein (Germany), 21, 60-61

Whaleback, 11, 120; 22, 105; ill., 1, 189; 8, 163; 11, 120; 13, 33; 26, 14-15

Whatcom, Mt. (Washington), 22, 78

Wheel Mountain, 19, 94; 27, 104, 110

Wheeler Peak, 12, 143

White House Ruin (Canyon de Chelly N.M.), ill., 30, 46-47 -

White Mountain (New Mexico), 2, 222-226

White Mountain (Sierra Nevada), 1, 309; 11, 423; ill., 11, 423

White Mountain Peak (Inyo), 10, 283-286; 27, 137;, ascents, 20, 102-103; 25, 125; 26, 142, 143; ill., 10, 284

White Mountains (Inyo), 10, 282-286

White Mountains (New Hampshire), 3, 313-318

" White Pass, " ill., 21, 30-31

White pine blister-rust, 11, 334

White River Canyon (Washington), ill., 8, 177

White Top, 19, 20-21

Whitehorn, Mt. (Canada), 14, 25-27; ill., 10, 281; 14, 26, 37

Whitehorse, Mt. (Washington), 22, 72

Whitewater River, 11, 350

Whitney, Mt., 12, 143-144; accessibility, 5, 87-90; age, 22, 18; altitude, see Elevation; airplane flight, 1914, 32, 87-88; ascents, 1873, 4, 288-289; 5, 96-97; 7, 142; 8, 137-138; 11, 253; 12, 144; 14, 45-52; 20, 81-85; 26, 103, 112; 32, 75-76; 1875, 20, 85-88; 32, 76; 1878, 20, 88-89; 32, 76; 1881, 5, 97; 7, 142; 20, 89-93; 32, 76, 80-81; 1883, 20, 110; 32, 81-83; 1885, 20, 110; 32, 81; 1890, 32, 83-85; 1895, 1, 290-292; 1902, 32, 85-87; 1903, 5, 44-45, 61-63; 32, 87; barometric readings on summit, 5, 91; Campbell-Abbot expedition, 1909, 7, 142-148; 21, 66-72; 32, 76-77; Climber's Guide, 26, 112-114; confUsed with Mt. Langley, 1, 5; see also Whitney, Mt.-Ascents, 1873; controversy over first ascent, 1873, 14, 46-51; 32, 75-76; controversy over name, 14, 51-52; 32, 76; east buttress, 23, 105, 106; 26, 113-114; east face ascents, 1, 1; 17, 53-58, 120; 20, 84-85, 109; 22, 105, 109; 23, 104-105, 106; 24, 130; 25, 129; 26, 113; 34, 145; electrical storm, 17, 105-107; 21, 66, 68; elevation computation, 4, 288-290; 5, 90-101; 7, 141-142; 11, 254; 14, 53-57; 21, 73-75; 32, 77; exploration, 4, 207-215; False Mt. Whitney, see Langley, Mt.; fatality in thunderstorm, 17, 105-107; 21, 66, 68; first ascent, see Whitney, Mt.-Ascents, 1873; first ascents by women, 1, 290-292; 20, 88-89; Fisherman's Peak, 4, 289; 14, 47, 51-52; geographical location, 21, 75; geology, 11, 189-190; 22, 1-18; history, 7, 141-142; 14, 39-52; 20, 81-93; 21, 64-75; 26, 102-103; 32, 75-88; Langley expedition, 1881, 7, 142; 20, 89-93; 32, 76, 80-81; leveling, 14, 53-57; meteorological observatory site, 5, 87-101; 6, 7-8; 20, 89-93; 21, 64-72; 32, 76; military reservation, 21, 64; mountaineer's route, 16, 108; 20, 85; 26, 112; north face route, 26, 112; observatory-shelter on summit, 7, 141-148; 20, 93; 21, 67-72; origin of name, 11, 253-254; 12, 143; Pinnacle Ridge, 25, 129; routes of ascent, 26, 112-114; routes to Mt. Whitney, 1, 187-198; 5, 87-88; scientific studies, 7, 141-148; shelter, see Whitney, Mt.-observatory-shelter; Sierra Club moonlight ascents, 18, 14-15, 127; 32, 31-35; southeast face ascent, 27, 131-132; summit, 20, 82; temperatures, 7, 248; trail, 1, 1-8, 93-106; 4, 207-215; 5, 139, 258-260; 14, 84-85; 21, 65-66; 32, 31-35; map, 1, 1; triangulation map, 2, 286; Tuolumne Meadows in six days, 26, 143; weathering, 22, 17-18; Winter ascents, 5, 316-317; 7, .105-118, 239; 23, 106-108; 27, 127-128; illustrations: east, 5, 87; 7, 143; 14, 43; 20, 89, 110-111; 22, 14-15; 23, 110-111; north, 1, 61; 2, 249; 5, 48; 13, 88; 18, 38; 22, 14-15; south, 14, 46; 22, 8; summit, 1, 197; 7, 141, 142; 10, 175; 20, 110-111; 21, 94-95; 22, 14-15; 32, 30-31, & 6, 87; trail, 1, 292; 22, 14-15, 62-63; 32, 31; view, 7, 31, 146, 147, 148; 10, 175; 20, 110-111; 22, 14-15; 32, 30-31; west, 1, 7, 105; 5, 50; 9, 22; 20, 91

Whitney Creek, 4, 210-211; see also Golden Trout Creek

Whitney Creek Gorge, 5, 79-80

Whitney Pass, 23, 106-108; 26, 105; ill., 14, 43

Whitney Region : Climber's Guide, 26, 102-121; map, 26, 110; see also Muir Crest

Whitney-Russell Pass, 26, 106

Whitney Surveys of 1863 and 1864, see California State Geological Survey

Whorl Mountain, 19, 99; 20, 106; ill., 20, 62-63

Wilbur, Mt. (Glacier N.P.), 12, 4-6; 23, 103; ill., 12, 4, 5, 36

Wild flower conservation, 8, 200-203; 9, 204; 11, 88, 97-98; 12, 96-97

Wild flowers, 6, 160-174; 11, 147-150; 26, 67-71; Yellowstone N.P., 12, 346-348; Yosemite N.P.-List of species, 6, 269-273; ill., 16, 19; 26, 14-15; see also Plants; see also Arenaria Rossii; Bitterroot; Blazing-star; Bryanthus; Bunchberry; Carpenteria; Cassiope; Columbine; Cyclamen; Downingia; Draba; Eriogonum; Frasera; Gilia; Harebells; Hulsea; Lilium Kelleyanum; Lily, Mariposa; Lobelia; Mimulus; Polemonium; Primrose; Silver-sword; Steer's head flower; Umbrella

Wild life conservation, 9, 45, 57, 176; 33, 11-18; see also Conservation; Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation

Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation, 12, 313-316; 15, 27-36; 23, 93-96; 32, 43-52; biology of wilderness protection, 27, 14-22; meadows, 8, 39-42; 27, 16; 32, 53-62; 33, 19-30; 34, 140-143; ill., 8, 40; 32, 62-63; need, 32, 43-52; packing and the wilderness, 32, 96-98; 33, 19-30; 34, 140-143; roads, 34, 31-54; trails, 23, 85-96; 25, 108--109; see also Conservation

Wilkes map of California, 28, 40, 53; ill., 28, 31

Williams Meadow, ill., 32, 62

Williamson, Mt.: first ascent, 1884, 11, 253; 12, 144; 26, 108; ascents, 1, 90-92; 2, 25-27; 5, 46-48; 11, 440; 12, 192-193, 307; east peak, 25, 130; 26, 109-11" 0, 130; origin of name, 11, 253; 12, 144; routes, 26, 108-110; ill., 1, 61, 91; 5, 44, 47, 48; 7, 146; 10, 214, 422; 18, 30

Willow, Arctic (Salix arctica), 11, 150; Pollard, ill., 28, 78--79

Willow Creek Divide (Trinity Alps), ill., 11, 371, 375

Willow Park (Rocky Mountain N.P.), 3, 194-196; ill., 3, 193, 195; see also Moraine Park

Wilmer Lake, 12, 144

Wilson Creek, 12, 144

Wilsonia, see Warbler, Pileolated

Wimmelcbe River, 28, 41; see also Kings River

Winchell, Mt., 13, 33-34; 16, 105; 24, 50-51; first ascent, 1923, 12, 90-91, 145; 16, 105; origin of name, 5, 3; 12, 145; 24, 42; 26, 39; Winter ascent, 23, 45; ill., 12, 92; 21, 30-31

Winchell, Crag Alexander, see Crag Alexander Winchell

Winchell's Peak, see Lookout Peak

Wind River Range (Wyoming), 33, 120

Window Peak, 26, 127

Winds, see Yosemite Valley-Winds

Windy Point, 21, 36; ill., 21, 30-31

Winter in the Sierra Nevada, 7, 237-242; 8, 249-259; 15, 69-73; see also Avalanches; Camping-winter; Skiing and ski-mountaineering; Snowfall

Winter sports values, 9, 53-55

Wit-sa-nap, see Convict Lake

Wiwaxy (Canada), ill., 8, 188

Wizard Island (Crater Lake), 1, 31-39; ill., 1, 36

Wolf, 6, 35

Wolverine, 15, 50-58; Mt. Rainier N.P., 6, 34

Wolverton Creek, 12, 145

Women and mountaineering, 7, 249; on Mt. Brewer, 1902, 4, 279; Cathedral Spire, 1934, 20, 107; Mt. Lyell, 1892, 1, 136-143; Mt. Shasta, 1856, 19, 65; Tuolumne Grand Canyon, 1896, 2, 50-52; 1897, 2, 174-184; Mt.Whitney, 1878, 20, 88; 1895, 1, 290; Mt. Williamson, 1893, 1, 90-92; 1896, 2, 24-26; 1903, 5, 48

Wood, Mt., 12, 145

Woodchuck, 12, 341

Woodpecker, 12, 152-154; Arctic three-toed (Picoides arcticus), 4, 141; ill., 4, 134; California (Melanerpes formicivorus), 6, 248; Harris's (Dryobates villosus), 6, 248-249; Log-cock, 4, 140-141

Woods Creek, 12, 145; ill., 8, 48

Woods Creek Basin, 6, 118

Woods Creek Canyon, 6, 104-105; ill., 8, 48-49; 12, 244

Woods Lake, ill., 21, 30-31

Woodworth, Mt., 1, 295-296; 12, 145; 26, 40; 27, 110; ill., 1, 297; 5, 2; 9, 162-163

World War I, 10, 322, 325, 360-361, 373-374, 438-440, 445, 447, 449, 486; 11, 175-180; 12, 294; Sierra Club honor roll, 10, 447-449; war service letters, 10, 450-475; war service record, 10, 320-321; 11, 106

World War II, 31, 32-56; correspondence from Sierra Club members, 28, 54-70; 29, 1-35; 30, 1-43; GIs in the Alps, 30, 79-85; 31, 32-45; Sierra Club members roster, 31, 102-111; postcards from prisoners of war, ill., 29, 46-47; postwar mountain training, 31, 46-54

Wren, Western winter (Nannus hiemalis), 8, 122

Wynne, Mt., 25, 122

X

Xintecatl, see Nevado de Toluca

Y

Yari, Mt. (Japan), 22, 93-94

Yellowhead, see Ground-squirrel, Sierra golden-mantled

Yellowhead Pass (Canada), 14, 31

Yellowstone, Grand Canyon of the., 12, 274-275; ill., 12, 277, 336, 349, 364

Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone N.P.), 12, 273; ill., 12, 352

Yellowstone National Park, 11, 161; 12, 268-276; animal life, 8, 217; 9, 207-208; 12, 333-345; ill., 12, 268, 337, 340, 345; bibliography, 12, 277-282; dam proposed, 11, 195, 199, 207; history, 12, 270; 33, 72-76; poem, 11, 412; reports, 8, 217-218; 9, 68, 207-208, 316; 10, 99, 245, 365-366, 476; Sierra Club outing, 1926, 12, 349-355; trails, 12, 268-276; wild flowers, 12, 346-348; ill., 12, 269, 276, 277, 336, 341, 344, 349, 352, 364, 365, 372; 373, 377, 437; 30, 46-47; see also Absaroka Range; Angel Terrace; Big Game Ridge; Bridger Lake; Castor Peak; Electric Peak; Fox Creek; Hawks Rest; Heart Lake; Mammoth Hot Springs; Old Faithful; Pollux Peak; Sheridan, Mt.; Shoshone Lake; -Tri-dent; Turret; Yellowstone, Grand Canyon; Yellowstone Lake

Yerba santa (Eriodictyon glutinosum), 3, 306

Yew (Taxus), 4, 125-127; Pacific (Taxus brevifolia), 4, 126-127

Yodeling, 25, 17

Yoho Valley (Canada), ill., 8, 188

Yokut Indians of the Kaweah region, 12, 385-400; map of range, 12, 388; ill., 12, 385

Yosemite, Lake (ancient), 9, 7-15; map, 9, II

Yosemite Creek Glacier, 10, 185

Yosemite Falls, 3, 40-42; 6, 308; 7, 92-93, 265; 12, 145; Lower Fall, 25, 52; 31, 119-120; ill., 3, 1, 41; 7, 87, 92, 93; 8, 284; 11, 168; 29, 46

Yosemite Glacier, 3, 62-63; 9, 7, 139-144; 11, 22-23; 12, 229-232

Yosemite Museum, 11, 415; ill., 11, 415

Yosemite National Park, 7, 127-129, 198-199, 264-266; 8, 55-57, 222-224; 9, 62, 63, 206-207, 318; 10, 97-98, 109-113, 368-372, 476-477; 11, 7-10, 215-216, 322; animal life, 17, 12-24; Bighorn sheep, 20, 28-31; birds, 6, 245-254; 17, 21-24; boundary change, 5, 250-253, 267-268, 328; 8, 285-286; 10, 112, 350-351; buildings and concessions, 10, 98, 245-247; canyons in north of Yosemite N.P., 1, 168-186, 330-335; maps, 1, 173, 177, 179, 185; congressional appropriations, 7, 263; 8, 228; 10, 247; creation, 1890, 1, 275-276; 23, 11-12; 29, 49-60, 61-66; educational development, 11, 413-416; 20, 111-112; see also Yosemite N. P .-Nature-guide service; explorations by John Muir, 1872, 23, 4-8; flora, 6, 270-273; 8, 27-28; forest fire protection, 10, 110; forests, 14, 68; geology, 9, 225-239; see also Yosemite Valley-Geology; glaciers, moraines, 10, 184-201; grazing, 9, 104, 114-115; 10, 371-372; see also Grazing and pasturage; Hetch-Hetchy, see Hetch-Hetchy; High Sierra Camps, see High Sierra Camps; history, 1, 275-278; 6, 59-61, 69-70; 12, 145-146; 13, 40-53; 21, 85-86; 23, 11-19; 29, 49-60, 61-66; 33, 47-78; "Idea," 33, 47-78; Indians, 11, 415; see also Indians-Yosemite; mining activities, 13, 40-53; map, 13, 43; natural history survey, 9, 289, 297-298; 10, 80; 11, 10; nature-guide service, 11, 167-170, 413-414; ill., 11, 168, 169, 414; origin of name, 10, 203; 12, 146, 147; over-development, 33, 79-86; patented lands, 8, 55, 223; 9, 62, 318; 10, 370; 14, 79-82; Patented Lands Act, 1912, 8, 288-289; pine tree pests, 9, 206; private holdings, 8, 223, 288-289; 14, 68-69, 79-83; rangers, 10, 110; recession, 8, 206; see also Yosemite Valley-Recession; roads and trails, 3, 259-260; 6, 262-263; 7, 128, 198-199; 8, 56; 10, 342-343, 369-370; 11, 215; 25, 110-116; 26, 123; 34, 31-54; ill., 34, 34-35; see also yosemite Valley-Roads; see also Arch Rock entrance; Big Oak Flat Road; Tioga Road; School of Field Natural History, 20, 111-112; Sierra Club, 23, 11-19; ski exploration, 16, 44-46; 19, 88-89; 21, 104-106; ski huts and trails, 25, 116; timber exchange, 9, 206, 316; trails, 25, 110-116; see also Yosemite N. P .-Roads and trails; troop withdrawal, 9, 316; visitors, 10, 370; water-power, 11, 213; wild flowers, 6, 270-273; 8, 27-28; see also Yosemite Valley

Yosemite Point Couloir, 24, 63-67; 25, 59-60

Yosemite Valley, 3, 27-47; 7, 87-92; birds, 6, 245-254; 8, 124; bibliography, 8, 124; list of species, 8, 123; Climber's Guide, 25, 41-63; climbing, 19, 34-37, 100; 21, 96-99; 22, 106-108; 23, 115-119; 24, 63-67, 130; 25, 41-63, 120; 26, 135-140; 27, 132-136; 32, 134; 34, 147-150; compared with Hetch-Hetchy Valley, 6, 212; compared with Kings River Canyon, 4, 96-97; 6, 115-117; 12, 224-236; 26, 5-6; cross-section diagram, 9, 13; 10, 71, 196; 12, 232; depth, 10, 70-72; discovery, 9, 166; 15, 75; 25, 41; 27, 35-49; 32, 126-127; bibliography, 27, 48-49; earthquake of 1872, 10, 20; earthquake origin of Yosemite, 10, 63-64; erosion origin of Yosemite, 10, 65; explorations by Prof. Joseph LeConte, 1870, 3, 27-51; federal jurisdiction, 5, 242-250, 268; 7, 129-130; 10, 143; field school, 1934, 20, 111; fish hatchery, 11, 9; flora, 6, 270-273; 26, 6-70; geology, 3, 35, 258; 7, 222-224; 8, 3-9; 9, 7-15, 136-147; 10, 62-77; 12, 224-236; 25, 45; see also Geological studies-Yosemite Valley; glacial origin of Yosemite, 3, 48-49, 258; 9, 7-15, 136-147; 10, 3, 62-77, 184-201; 12, 227-230; 21, 28; 23, 9-10; 29, 92-95; glaciers and moraines, 9, 7-15, 136-147; diagram, 10, 69; hanging valleys, 12, 231; history, 23, 11-19; 25, 41-44; 27, 35-49; 33, 64-76; Indians, 10, 202-209; 25, 41; Kings River Canyon from Yosemite, 1, 221-237; 2, 104-106; 20, 54-67; latitude, 12, 93; Yosemite National Park (cont.) LeConte Memorial lectures, 11, 9-10; map, 12, 228; Mono Pass route, 15, 113-115; John Muir in Yosemite in 1872, 23, 4-8; origin of name, 10, 203; 12, 146, 147; overdevelopment and overcrowded conditions, 33, 79-86; 34, 33-36; recession to federal control, 5, 242-250, 268, 311, 328; 6, 58-61; 8, 229-230; 10, 143; 23, 13; roads, 6, 262-263; 7, 127-128; sequoia planting, 9, 201-203; Sierra Club lodge, ill., 10, 142; 29, 46-47; trail projects, 25, 110-112; Tuolumne Pass route to Tuolumne Meadows, 5, 314-316; waterfalls, 6, 307-309; 7, 88; see also Bridalveil Fall, Eagle Peak Falls (extinct), Illilouette Fall, Nevada Fall, Ribbon Fall, Snow Creek Falls, Vernal Fall, Yosemite Falls; wild flowers, 6, 270-273; 26, 68-70; winds, 8, 89-95; ill., 3, 1, 32, 35, 37, 41, 43, 45, 47; 6, 307; 7, 169; 8, 89, 132, 249, 264; 10, 69, 195; 11, 168, 169; 12, 224; 16, 1; 30, 46-47; see also Yosemite National Park

Young, Mt., 12, 147; 20, 108-109; 26, 111, 112; 32, 80; ill., 22, 14-15

Young Lake, 10, 291; 12, 147; 25, 113; ill., 10, 285, 289

Yunque de Luquilio (Puerto Rico), 27, 134

Z

Zabriskie Point (Death Valley), ill., 17, 67

Zamelodia, see Grosbeak, Black-headed

Zillertal (Austria), 12, 289-292; ill., 12, 289

Zumwalt Meadow, 12, 147; 21, 91; ill., 26, 14-15

Zion National Park and National Monument (Utah), 10, 338-339; 11, 6, 317-318; ascent of East Temple, 23, 112-114; ascent of West Temple, 19, 38-41; ill., 10, 336, 337, 340, 341; 19, 46-47


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