Growth. Expansion. Progress. For two centuries, they have been synonymous. And they have
been the American way. Until now. The consequences of unbridled, haphazard growth --
traffic congestion, air pollution, overcrowded schools, lost farm land, forests and open
space -- are forcing us to reconsider how and where we build.
According to a recent survey conducted by the Pew Center for Civic Journalism, sprawl
tied with crime as one of the most pressing concerns for Americans at the local level. A
quick glance at the hundreds of recent state and local ballot measures on the issue
confirms the fact: Americans want to find a better way to grow.
The Vermillion Project, located in Huntersville, NC, epitomizes smart growth.
The good news is that some developers and communities are coming up with
answers. Across the country, smarter, better-planned developments are being built that are
walkable, accessible to public transportation and that strike a balance
houses, shops and open space.Even the most sprawl-choked cities -- Atlanta, Denver,
Houston and Los Angeles -- are experimenting with innovative ideas to rein-in poorly
planned development. And good planning isn't confined to big cities -- suburbs like
Somerville, Mass., and smaller cities like Boise, Idaho, are also making an effort to grow
Clearly, the demand for smarter growth and planning is strong.
Market research backs this up: Smart-growth developments across the country are selling
well and light rail has taken off in such unlikely places as Salt Lake City and Los
Angeles. The bad news is that old habits die hard.
There are still developers who don't care a whit and communities that haven't caught on
yet. And in too many places, poor planning, out-of-date laws and petty politics make
building better developments an uphill fight. Since 1997, only 22 states have updated
their planning codes and laws to encourage smarter growth.
This report, "Smart
Choices or Sprawling Growth: A 50-State Survey of Development," is the Sierra Club's
third annual survey of sprawl. It looks at development in each of the 50 states and the
District of Columbia. Our goal is to help define what's good and what's bad and to present
evidence -- and hope -- that we can change the way we grow, protect our environment and
strengthen our communities in the process.
Smart Growth's Success Stories
Looking at the projects we've assembled, one trend is clear: Smart growth is behind
many of the most successful examples. Some refer to this work as "New Urbanism,"
or traditional neighborhood development. And though the range of developments that fall
under these headings is wide, they all share certain essential traits.
In Louisville, smart-growth planning has created affordable housing.
Smart-growth projects seek to make neighborhoods friendly to people on foot, offer
residents public-transportation options, and create a healthy balance of shops, jobs and
housing around a downtown or main street. Proper smart-growth planning also invites
residents into the process, empowering them to participate and, instead of starting with a
blank slate, looks to an area's history and architecture for inspiration.
partnership between the University of Louisville, non-profits, city officials and
developers shows how smart-growth ideas can be used to build affordable and livable
housing. The success of many smart-growth projects has created a profitable niche that
developers are beginning to fill. And community developers, long expert in using
public/private partnerships to help create affordable housing, are now turning their
sights to smart-growth projects that provide low-cost houses and apartments.
Residents of East Russell -- once a down-and-out neighborhood in Louisville, Ky.,
-- participated directly in the planning process and, after years of neglect, hundreds of
houses have been built. Now the neighborhood is enjoying a resurgence that is bringing new
businesses to the area.
Ohlone-Chynoweth Commons in San Jose, Calif., is another good example. This
project will turn an underused parking lot into almost 200 units of affordable housing, a
play area for kids, on-site day care, a community center and a computer-learning facility.
Residents will have a landscaped pedestrian walkway that gives them easy access to San
Jose's 21-mile-long light-rail line.
Public Transit Gains Speed
Another key trend that emerges from this report is the importance of public
transportation to a healthy community and the growing acceptance of light rail, commuter
trains and high-speed buses -- even in unlikely places.
Highway in Utah, an expensive new road that will create more sprawl and air pollution.
The Village Green in Los Angeles is one of a new breed of transit-oriented
developments that have been taking root on the West Coast. Though not known in recent
years for its public transportation, Los Angeles has slowly begun moving in the right
direction, adding subways, high-speed "smart buses" and commuter trains to the
mix. Developers are responding in kind, building housing, jobs and stores around these
newly energized corridors.
In Salt Lake City, the recently built light rail, dubbed TRAX, has been very successful
as well. It has exceeded its ridership goals, and plans are in the works to further extend
Protecting Open Space
Cutting-edge developments are also using smart-growth ideas to protect open space, and
using urban green spaces to link neighborhoods to each other and to their natural
The community of Vermillion, located on 360 acres of land in North Carolina just
outside of Huntersville, preserves open space and provides residents with a 1.5-mile
greenway along a creek.
Waterfront project in Hoboken, N.J., is restoring a waterfront park that will
then be linked up to a coastal trail. Farther up the coast, the community of
Peter-borough, N.H., plans a "river walk," giving pedestrians safe and
aesthetically pleasing access to downtown businesses.
Sprawl Threatens Coast and Country
Now the bad news. The Cahaba River outside Birmingham, Ala., is one of many coastal or
riverside places threatened by careless planning. Developers have recently fought to
reduce a protective buffer along the river to a mere 50 feet. Much development along the
Cahaba abuts this buffer and threatens riverside habitat and open space.
Despite heavy flooding in 1993, Chesterfield
Commons is being built on a floodplain.
Impossible as it seems, a developer in Biloxi, Miss., has actually
one-upped Alabama's river sprawl problem -- by proposing to fill in 65 acres of the
Mississippi Sound and 3.6 acres of nearby wetlands. This newly filled wetland would be the
site of six floating casinos, eight hotels, parking garages and other resort amenities,
requiring thousands of new septic tanks. Habitat for fish, crabs and other marine
organisms will be jeopardized or destroyed by stormwater runoff and sand mining for
In neighboring Florida, the massive development of Nocatee shows that
developers still haven't learned that building on flood-prone areas is dangerous business.
Its placement, smack-dab in the middle of a floodplain, will increase the risk of flood
And in Southern California, Newhall Ranch, which dwarfs most other projects in
this report, is threatening to chew up 12,000 acres -- including 300 acres located in the
floodplain of the Santa Clara River.
The Impacts of Sprawl
All this sprawl is a huge threat to the environment and, in some cases, to human
One of the biggest impacts of sprawl relates to how we get around. Research by
transportation experts shows that sprawl forces us to take more trips and drive more
miles. Multiply the tens of millions of cars on the road by the air pollution each creates
and you have some inkling why many of our major cities are choking under a haze of smog.
Colorado's Aurora development has gobbled up open space and turned acres of drought-resistant prairie grass into
water-hungry lawns fed by the Colorado River.
Another sprawl-related impact stems from roads. As of 1997, we had built more
than 4 million miles of roads -- almost 80 percent of which are located in rural areas.
Experts estimate that one-fifth of the land area in the United States has been affected by
road building. And sprawl itself wreaks massive destruction on our wildlands and wildlife.
According to the American Farmland Trust, we continue to lose nearly 1 million acres of
farm land and open space each year.
Careless development also entails harsh economic costs. From 1988 to 1998, destruction
caused by flooding cost American taxpayers more than $473 billion in local, state and
federal funds. In this same period, the Federal Emergency Management Agency moved more
than 17,000 damaged homes and businesses out of floodplains.
Making sure our states have the proper tools needed to discourage haphazard development
and encourage smart growth is an essential first step. Getting local planners and elected
officials to see the problems of sprawl and respond effectively is also crucial.
Thousands of local ordinances and codes actually encourage or even require sprawling
development by preventing developers from building different types of housing -- like
apartments and townhouses -- or different types of development -- like shops and housing
-- in the same neighborhood. While over 100 communities have adopted smarter codes in
recent years, there's a long way to go in reforming local development guidelines.
Eliminating the subsidies that make sprawling development easier and cheaper to build
than smart growth is also key. (Our 1998, 1999 and spring
2000 sprawl reports looked at these issues respectively. See Resources for more information.)
Our efforts to stem suburban sprawl will go nowhere until the private sector puts its
substantial creativity and muscle behind smart growth. The good news is that some
developers are leading the way by coming forward with smart-growth models. Overall,
however, these projects are still few and far between.
The demand is there for a change in business as usual. Public-opinion research shows
that people are yearning for the sense of community that comes with traditional
neighborhood development. Visual Preference Surveys, which ask participants to choose
either images of traditional neighborhood development or suburban sprawl, turn up the same
results time and again: Most people would prefer to live in a place with a convenient mix
of places to work, shop and relax.
Where there's demand for smart growth, there's a profit to be made. And, as this report
shows, the environment benefits when we build alternatives to sprawl.
We hope this report will demonstrate why we don't have to settle for more poorly
planned growth. There are dozens -- if not hundreds -- of examples of well-planned,
innovative smart growth that point the way out of our destructive patterns of suburban
sprawl. Now it comes down to whether we have the courage and vision to follow